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A Short History of Europe: From the Greeks and Romans to the by Antony Alcock (auth.)

By Antony Alcock (auth.)

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From 31-23Bc he was Consul and thereafter received further powers which made the consulship unnecessary, including control of the armed forces and the provinces. The army now took the oath 24 A Short History qf Europe of allegiance to him direcdy. As Tribune he controlled Rome, with the power to propose laws and veto any item of public business. In 12Bc he was appointed Pontifex Maximus, head of Rome's state . 13 re1lgton. At home he tried to create an Italian patriotism by getting all the people of the peninsula to look on Rome as part of their heritage and to take pride in its achievements.

The army consisted of twenty-eight legions, some 150 000 men (later it would be raised to thirty-three), but this was clearly not enough, and so another 130 000 auxiliary troops were raised from among the subject peoples, sometimes from those along the frontiers, which would also be a cause for problems in the future. In addition, Augustus created a force upon which he could rely for his protection and use to control Rome, the nine thousand-strong Praetorian Guard. Eight legions each were placed to guard the three most vulnerable frontiers - those of the Rhine, the Danube and Syria.

But Pompey's sons and supporters were still alive and it would be three years before Caesar defeated them in North Mrica and Spain. 10 In 45Bc Caesar returned to Rome where four years previously he had been proclaimed dictator for life. His first object was to consolidate his hold on power. He began by uniting in his person a number of the Republic's offices, including the Consulate and the Tribunates. Magistrates and provincial governors loyal to him were appointed, and the Senate increased to nine hundred members, also on that basis.

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