By van Nieuwenhuizen P.

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42 1. A BRIEF HISTORY OF QUANTUM GAUGE FIELD THEORY Thus physical states form equivalence classes, and there is always one state in an equivalence class which only depends on transversal modes and which is without any quartet states. (iii) physical states have vanishing ghost number, so they have quartet admixtures with equal numbers of ghost and antighost oscillators. On the other hand, BRST closed states with nonvanishing ghost number are BRST exact (“pure gauge”). Having defined physical states by Q|ψ = 0 but |ψ = Q|χ , and discussed the solutions in terms of asymptotic states, it becomes plausible that the S matrix for nonabelian (as well as abelian) gauge theories is unitary.

However, band spectra showed that it had spin 1. Another problem with the proton-electron model of the nucleus was that nuclei would have far too large magnetic moments (a factor 1000 too large) if they contained electrons. See ref. b. 35 2. WEAK INTERACTIONS 53 concept in field theory was introduced by Fermi in the 1930’s: the notion of particle creation. In Schr¨odinger and Heisenberg’s theory of quantum mechanics, an electron could make a transition from one level to another in the atom, but it remained an electron.

In 1947 several important experimental papers were published, one by Kusch and Foley [70] announcing a value for the magnetic moment of the electron which deviated from Dirac’s value, another by Lamb and Retherford [71] announcing a shift between the energy of the 2 2 s1/2 and 2 2 p1/2 levels of the hydrogen atom (in Dirac theory these levels are degenerate), and further some papers on deviations from Dirac theory in the hyperfine structure of hydrogen and deuterium [72]. 16) The author met Dirac in Florida in 1978 after a seminar on supergravity.