By W.G. Frankenburg, V.I. Komarewsky, E.K. Rideal (Eds.)
(from preface)The use of heterogeneous catalysts as a device within the laboratory, in preparative chemistry, and in huge scale business creation has multiplied past any expectancies over the past 3 decades.Catalytic techniques at the present time dominate the construction of sulfuric acid, ammonia, methanol, and lots of different commercial items. The cracking of mineral oils, the hydrogenation, transformation, and synthesis of hydrocarbons are just about all situated round catalytic conversions conducted with many alternative catalysts together with a few of hugely particular motion. Many extra catalyzed reactions are being performed in batch techniques and in non-stop operations, in heterogeneous and in homogeneous systems...
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Extra info for Advances in Catalysis, Vol. 1
N. IPATIEFF AND LOUIS SCHMERLING Intensive research on catalytic alkylation of paraffins resulted in a number of commercial processes for the production of high octane number motor fuel from refinery gases. The reaction played a major role in World War 11, for it provided the means of producing “alkylate,” an important component of 100-octane aviation gasoline. For this purpose it had advantages over the alternative process involving olefin polymerization followed by hydrogenation because it yielded an isoparaffinic gasoline directly and because it permitted the utilization of butanes as well us of olefins, thus yielding approximately twice as much g a d i n e from a given amount of olefin.
Physik. Chem. 170A, 300 (1934). 18. Beebe, R. , and Dowden, D. , J . Am. Chem. 60,2912 (1938). 19. Garner, W. , and Kingman, F. E. , Nature 126,352 (1930). 20. a. Eley, D. , and Rideal, E. , Nutwe 146,401 (1940). b. Eley, D. , Proc. Roy. LondonA178,452 (1941). 21. , J . Am. Chem. 64,1594 (1942). Alkylation of Isoparaffins V. N. erside, Illinois CONTENTS I. Introduction . . . . . 1. Historical . . . , . . 2. Scope . . . . , . 3. Preliminary Survey . . . . 11. The Mechanism of the Catalytic Alkylation of Paraffins 111.
Therefore, the two n-butylenes yield very different alkylates. Experimental evidence in support of the postulation for the reactions that occur in sulfuric acid (or hydrogen fluoride) may be found in a study of the alkylation of isobutane with 2-butene in the presence of tritium sylfuric acid at 10" (Stewart and Denham, 2 2 ) . The results indicate that there was random distribution of hydrogen and tritium atoms in the olefin and the catalyst prior to alkylation. Also, when 2-butene was bubbled through tritium sulfuric acid at a rate such that there was little absorption, ALKYLATION OF ISOPARAFFINS 39 hydrogen-tritium exchange occurred, demonstrating not only rapid exchange but also reversible absorption of the olefin in the acid.