By Robert I. Frost
The Swedish invasion of 1655, identified to Poles ever given that because the 'Swedish deluge', provoked the political and armed forces cave in of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the second-largest kingdom in Europe. Robert Frost examines the explanations for Poland's fall and the behavior of the warfare by means of the Polish govt, and addresses the the most important query of why, regardless of frequent popularity of the shortcomings of the political procedure, next makes an attempt at reform failed. warfare has lengthy been obvious as an important to the advance of more advantageous platforms of presidency in Europe in the course of the 17th century, yet stories often be aware of states which answered effectively to the demanding situations. a lot will be realized from those who failed, and the paucity of English-language fabric in this very important clash signifies that After the Deluge will attract a wide viewers between historians of Poland, Germany, Scandinavia, Russia, and early smooth Europe generally.
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Extra info for After the Deluge: Poland-Lithuania and the Second Northern War, 1655-1660
517. I. Frost, 'Initium Calamitatis Regni? John Casimir and monarchical power in Poland-Lithuania, 1648-1668' European History Quarterly 16(1986). A . M . Fredro, Scriptorum seu Togae et Bellum Notationum Fragmenta. Accesserunt Peristromata Regum Symbolis Expressa (Danzig, 1660). 14 Introduction Thereafter it became a regular feature of political life. The nadir was reached in the reign of Augustus III (1733-63), when only the 1736 diet passed any laws at all. The central political issue of John Casimir's reign was the extent and nature of royal authority, a conflict which had been intensifying since 1574.
K u b a l a , Wojna moskiewska r. 1654-1655 (Warsaw, Cracow, 1910); Wojna szwecka w roku 16551 1656 ( L w o w , 1913); Wojna brandenburska i najazd Rakoczego w roku 1656 i 1657 ( L w o w , Warsaw, 1917); Wojny dunskie i pokoj olimijski ( L w o w , 1922). K . ), Polska w okresie drugiej wojny poinocnej 4 vols. (Warsaw, 1957). 24 Introduction nobles, not senators or ministers. S. Radziwill, Lithuanian grand hetman from 1623 to 1656, which is such an informative source for the reign of Wladyslaw IV and the early years of John Casimir, but which says little after the outbreak of war in 1655.
8 The 1648 rising received massive support from Ukrainian peasants, but it was not the direct result of peasant discontent. Peasant risings elsewhere in the Commonwealth, in protest against the harsh conditions of serfdom, were not uncommon but they tended to be highly localised and easy to control. In the Ukraine, however, it was not just the peasants who were discontented. Not every member of the Ukrainian elites benefited from the union after 1569, since not all who considered themselves noble were subsequently recognised as such.