By Norman J. G. Pounds
The critical topic of this ebook is the altering spatial trend of human actions over the last 2,500 years of Europe's historical past. Professor kilos argues that 3 elements have made up our minds the destinations of human actions: the surroundings, the attitudes and types of social association of the various diversified peoples of Europe and finally, the degrees of expertise. in the vast framework of the interrelationships of atmosphere, society and expertise, a number of very important topics pursued from the 5th century BC to the early 20th century: cost and agriculture, the expansion of towns, the advance of producing and the position of alternate. Underlying each one of those subject matters are the discussions of political association and inhabitants. even if the booklet is predicated partially of Professor Pound's magisterial 3 volumes An historic Geography of Europe (1977, 1980, 1985), it was once written specifically for college kids and readers drawn to a normal survey of the topic.
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Extra info for An Historical Geography of Europe (Soviet and East European Studies, 79)
About half the population of the Athenian polis must have lived outside its central city. Most appear to have had their homes in compact villages, though there were also scattered farmsteads and large estate farms like the one described by Xenophon. 7 There were also isolated steadings in the mountains where the shepherds and charcoal burners lived and worked. The settlement pattern must have been broadly similar throughout the Greek world. In their hinterlands, however, were large villages tightly clustered on protective, hilltop sites, such as have survived until today in many parts of Mediterranean Europe.
C. must give a perhaps disproportionate space to the distribution of the Greek city-state — the polis. Through it the Greeks looked at the world, and it shaped their agriculture, crafts, and trade. A great deal is known about the polis, but rather less of the agriculture and crafts pursued by the Greeks and the commerce which they carried on among themselves. Nevertheless, each of these fields of human activity is discussed and its spatial distribution and interactions examined. The chapter has not been organized in such a way that it separates the world of the Greeks from the barbarian world.
There was little summer feed for animals, which more often than not were moved up into the mountains during the hot season. The Mediterranean region was always, until modern times, in the forefront of cultural progress. The first great civilization developed in Greece, and it was in the southern Balkan peninsula that crops were first grown in Europe, metals smelted, and towns built. Travel was easy within the Mediterrean basin. The sea was almost tideless, and its storms never had the violence of those experienced in the Atlantic Ocean.