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Environmental Economics

An Introduction to Ecological Economics by Costanza, Robert

By Costanza, Robert

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It is in the ­interest of ­industrial countries to subsidize alternatives. This view is repeated by Dr. Qu Wenhu of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, who says: “… if ‘needs’ include one automobile for each of a billion Chinese, then it is impossible …” (OTA 1991). Merely stopping unintended pregnancies would go a long way to solving the problem. Approximately 40% of pregnancies in d ­ eveloping countries and 47% in developed ones are unintended. More than one-in-five births internationally are from pregnancies women did not wish to have.

Second, we must try to modify consumption patterns around the world (the new consumers are unlikely to alter their consumption until the rich world consumers take solid steps to adapt their own consumption). Many observers believe that such patterns are ­ set in concrete, but these may prove to be rather more ­malleable. For example, during a recent 20-year period, some 55 million Americans gave up smoking—a social earthquake, virtually overnight. Most important of all is the need to establish sustainable consumption as a norm.

M. Kelley, N. Ninh. Living with environmental change: Social vulnerability, adaptation and resilience in Vietnam. Routledge research global environmental change series; 6. London: Routledge, 2001, pp. xxi, 314 p. M. Islam, M. Haque. The mangrove-based coastal and nearshore fisheries of Bangladesh: ecology, exploitation, and management. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 14, 153, 2004. T. M. Aide, H. R. Grau. Globalization, migration, and Latin American ecosystems. Science 305, 1915, 2004. 6.

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