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An Introduction to Organisational Behaviour for Managers and by Duncan Kitchin

By Duncan Kitchin

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The elements reflecting Johnson’s (1992) central paradigm were: - Organisational structures - Control systems - Power structures - Symbols - Stories and myths - Rituals and routines In effect, the central paradigm is the equivalent of what Schein (1985) calls the organisation’s culture. That is, the set of shared basic assumptions that are developed through time within the organisation. The elements are then the manifestations of that central paradigm: - Structure and the control systems will reflect the basic assumptions shared by the staff of the organisation.

The essence of an iceberg, in this case, is that the majority of the iceberg is below the surface of the water and we cannot see what it is that supports the part of the iceberg that is above the water surface and visible. Schein suggested that there were three layers of organisational culture, two of which were below the water line, Basic Assumptions and Values, and one of which was visible and above the water line, Artefacts. Artefacts Artefacts are the things that we can observe in an organisation.

18 CHAPTER 1 Groups and Group Processes Group Think Group Think was defined by Janis (1972) as ‘‘a deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing and moral judgment that results from in-group pressures’’ and was put forward as a way that very cohesive groups fail to make good decisions. A typical definition of cohesiveness is ‘‘. (the) strength of group members’ desires to remain in the group and their commitment to the group’’, Gibson et al. (2000). Implicit in this definition is that the group is not a newly formed group of strangers.

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