By W.R. Hindmarsh and D. ter Haar (Auth.)
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Extra info for Atomic Spectra
4 shows that the 7P term of sodium deviates appreciably. 1) represents a good approximation when ever the doublet sphtting is fairly large (more than about 2 c m " ^), and departures from it are attributed to the influence of other interactions (for example, the interaction between the magnetic moments of the valence and core electrons). (b) Dependence on the atomic number Ζ Ze is the charge on the nucleus, but this is only seen by the valence electron when it has penetrated inside the electronic core of the atom.
Hence we may write the total 2mgc^aän"/(/+i)(/+l) where we have again made use of the condition Thus the spin-orbit energy is Z^Zq. 3). 7) also gives approximate quantitative agree ment with the measured splitting. The agreement is somewhat improved if (Z—μ) is substituted for Z , where, for example, μ has a value of about 3 for alkali-like Ρ terms. The expression was first derived by Lande (1924) who was responsible for unravelling many of the deep-seated symmetries of the atom which are reñected in the regularities of the spectra.
Fermi and Segré discuss in some detail the possibility that the quantum numbers of the atomic states may not be well-defined and that the true wave functions are Unear combinations of two or more of the wave functions of LS'-states. This effect can cause striking anomalies in hyperfine structure patterns, and Fermi and Segré succeeded in explaining some experimental results that previously seemed puzzling. 4. In heavy elements a larger effect arises to cause the different isotopes of an element to give spectral lines of sHghtly different frequencies.