By William Dowhan (auth.), Jos A. F. Op den Kamp (eds.)
The complicated research Institute on "Structure, Biogenesis and Dynamics of organic Membranes, held in Cargese from June 14-26, 1993, has been facing 4 significant themes in membrane biochemistry at the present time: lipid dynamics and lipid-protein interactions, protein translocation and insertion, intracellular site visitors aud protein constitution and folding. the teachers mentioned those subject matters ranging from a number of disciplines, together with biochemistry, telephone biology, genetics, and biophysics. This wayan interdisciplinary and extremely inte~sting view on organic membrane structures used to be acquired. firstly an intensive assessment of -mainly biophysical -techniques that are used to review dynamic approaches in membranes was once provided. subtle techniques equivalent to ESR and NMR were utilized succesfully to solve information of particular lipid-protein interactions. x ray research presents designated structural details of numerous proteins and the prospective implications for protein features. details bought this fashion is complemented via reports on mechanisms and kinetics of protein folding. The latter info is crucial whilst discussing protein translocation and insertion: proces:;es during which folding and unfolding play crucial roles. large perception was once provided within the complex equipment of phospholipid biosynthesis. particularly, the appliance of subtle genetic options has allowed a greater knowing of the mechanisms regulating the factitious equipment and targeted stories on various mutants, missing a number of of the basic enzymes, have led to the start of a bL!:
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Extra resources for Biological Membranes: Structure, Biogenesis and Dynamics
With yeast this hypothesis can easily be tested, because a whole set of temperature-sensitive secretory mutants (Schekman, 1985) with defects at all stages along the secretory pathway of proteins is available. Secretory mutants selected for this study are listed in Table 1. If sphingolipids reach the plasma membrane by a process linked to protein secretion, temperature shift of secretory mutants from 24 to 37°C should not only inhibit protein secretion, but also affect the intracellular translocation of sphingolipids.
Again, the kinetic and biochemical properties of cholesterol and marker protein transport to the PM are compared. The t1/2 of cholesterol transport to the PM was approximately 10 min (Kaplan and Simoni, 1985a), a value within the bounds of estimates of bulk membrane flow from the ER to the plasma membrane (Wieland et aL, 1987). This cholesterol transport required metabolic energy, exhibited a dramatic cold-sensitivity as transport ceased at 15°C, and labeled cholesterol accumulated in the ER and in a lipid-rich fraction upon cold challenge.
Therefore, more recently emphasis was laid on studies with complex cells which can undergo severe physiological modifications. The cultured neonatal cardiomyocyte appeared to be a suitable model system and the study of its plasma membrane phospholipid asymmetry, its maintenance and changes therein upon metabolic alterations, can provide detailed information about the role that a specific phospholipid organization can play in proper cell functioning. Phospholipid asymmetry in plasma membranes. The best studied plasma membrane with respect to phospholipid localization is that of the erythrocyte and the existence of an asymmetric distribution of phospholipids was demonstrated first in this membrane.