By Hellmut G. Karge and Jens Weitkamp
Molecular Sieves - technology and Technology covers, in a finished demeanour, the technology and know-how of zeolites and all similar microporous and mesoporous fabrics. Authored by means of popular specialists, the contributions are grouped jointly topically in any such approach that every quantity of the booklet sequence offers with a selected sub-field. quantity four covers the characterization of molecular sieves with the aid of an important spectroscopic concepts (Characterization I), i.e. IR, Raman, NMR, EPR, UV-VIS Spectroscopy, X-ray absorption, photoelectron and M?ssbauer Spectroscopy. concept, test and alertness in chosen examples are mentioned.
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Additional resources for Characterization I (Molecular Sieves)
Compare the following Sect. 2. , frequency response (FR) spectroscopy (see also Sect. 2), electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, etc. 2 Diffuse Reflectance IR (Fourier Transform) Spectroscopy (DRIFT) Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) has been frequently employed in UV-Vis spectroscopy of zeolites (cf. Volume 4, Chapter 4 of the present series). , [160, 161]). The DRIFT technique is advantageous because it is successfully applicable not only in the mid infrared but also in the near infrared (NIR) region of 4000–10,000 cm–1, where the transmission technique usually fails because of severe scattering through the absorbent particles.
Furthermore, Raman spectra may be obtained from samples enclosed in cells made from glass. However, a detailed discussion of the progress in Raman studies of adsorbed molecules is beyond the scope of this chapter, and we therefore refer to previous extended reviews [194, 195]. In subsequent sections we will focus on some selected studies dealing with Raman spectroscopy. , in Refs. [183, 185]. Examples of application of Raman spectroscopy in zeolite research are provided, for instance, in Sects.
145–150]. 1 Transmission IR Spectroscopy IR radiation energy transmitted through a zeolite sample is measured by infrared spectrometers as a function of the wavenumber, n˜, (in cm–1) or wavelength, l (in mm), where n˜ = 104/l and n˜ =c0 n, with c0 representing the velocity of light. (Even though not correct in a strict sense, in reports on IR studies, instead of the term “wavenumber, n˜ ,” simply the term “frequency, n” is often used; usually, however, this is not misleading, since the meaning is clear from the context).