By A. C. M. Bourg (auth.), Dr. Wim Salomons, Professor Dr. Ulrich Förstner (eds.)
Dredged fabric and Mine Tailings are of an identical factor after they are deposited on land: they have to be safe-guarded, wash-out has to be avoided, they usually needs to be safe by way of a plantcover. This finished treatise covers either vital elements in their administration: In Chemistry and Biology of stable Waste the rules and overview are scientifically studied and mentioned, whereas Environmental Management of sturdy Waste turns to the sensible functions, corresponding to prediction, recovery and administration. formerly, dredged fabric was once a commodity, it can be offered as soil, e.g. to gardeners. meanwhile, dredged fabric from the North Sea (e.g. the Rotterdam or Amsterdam harbor) needs to be handled as poisonous waste. Many environmentalists, managers and corporations don't know the way to remedy the inherent difficulties. This new paintings offers with the chemical, actual and organic ideas; the organic and geochemical evaluation; the prediction of results and therapy; and eventually, with the recovery and revegetation. it's written by way of many top scientists within the a variety of fields, and should turn out worthy for scientists, managers and politicians who're keen on the current environmental situation.
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Additional resources for Chemistry and Biology of Solid Waste: Dredged Material and Mine Tailings
Thermodynamic data predict sulfate formation (Dutrizac and MacDonald 1974; Lowson 1982) as shown in the following reaction: (8) The electrochemical pathway (Lowson 1982) is the summation of two half-cell reactions as follows: 38 B. C. Kelley and O. H. Tuovinen 1. The anode: FeS2 + 8H2 0 ~ Fe 3+ + 2S0;- + 16H+ + 15e-. (9) 2. The cathode: O2 +4H+ +4e- ~ 2H 2 0. (10) Both the chemical and electrochemical reactions make important contributions to localized iron environments in nature (Lowson 1982).
A major contributor to the microbial consortia is the chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. For a more comprehensive listing of the sulfur- and iron-oxidizing bacteria, the reader is directed to the excellent reviews by Ralph (1979) and Norris and Kelly (1982). Under field conditions, the degradation of these mineral materials is a dynamic process involving a succession of microbial populations (Ralph 1979; Lundgren and Malouf 1983) which develop according to the prevailing environmental conditions.
This will be discussed in more detail later in this section. In the absence of iron, protons (H +) play a central catalytic role in the mechanism of bacterial oxidation of metal sulfides (Tributsch and Bennett 1981a,b). , ZnS) with large energy gaps leach faster than more electronically favorable sulfides (Tributsch and Bennett 1981a; Vaughan 1984). There appears to be no direct correlation with the energy difference between the position of the electron transport system ofthe bacterium and the highest filled energy band ofthe sulfides.