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Chemistry and Physiology of Mitochondria and Microsomes by Olov Lindberg, Lars Ernster

By Olov Lindberg, Lars Ernster

Chondria of tumours, for instance. are characterised through a low respiration strength. that could be linked to a poor mitochondrial association. because the physiological dilemma of mobilephone breathing seems to be to lie within the formation of ATP. it'll look that the standards chargeable for the splitting of ATP with the formation of phosphate esters. also are respon sible for the aforementioned regulate meChanism. The enzyme glucokinase, that is identified to be topic to hormonal keep watch over within the intact cellphone constitution, is essentially certain to cytoplasmic debris. The activation approaches consist within the creation by way of the mitochondria of precursot.s to the ingredients synthesized through the cellphone. hence, except the enzymic spectrum worthwhile for oxidative procedures and the formation of ATP. the mitochondria additionally comprise particular activation mechanisms, the character of that's made up our minds by way of the kind of cellphone during which they're con tained. Specialization will be saw within the sarcosomes of muscles, which serve to supply the contractile components with A TP: within the mito chondria of kidney tubules, that are involved within the methods of re absorption; in liver mitochondria, which concentrate on the creation of acetoacetate and within the synthesis of citrulline and detoxication conjugates of fragrant compounds: and never least within the mitochondria of embryonic tissue which. based on the present stag.e of improvement and the a part of the embryo during which they're positioned, play an energetic half within the differentiation method.

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This type of information serves as •a useful pointer in the search for the metabolic function of the cell constituent concerned. For the detailed investigation, however, studies of multi-enzyme systems seem to be more suited. Thus, the finding that cytochrome oxidase and succinic oxidase are located exclusively in the mitochondria, has been of the greatest importance in that it directed attention upon the central role of the mitochondria in cell respiration. The systematic investigation, however.

PoTTER. RECKNAGEL and HuRLBERT 1951). We cannot, by and large. see any reason why GREEN's hypothesis, according to which the cyelophora~e system is associated with the mitochondria, should not be accepted. '~ school towards recent discoveries concerning the mitochondrial structure, and especially towards the question of the mitochondrial membraJH'. This altitude has been sharply criticized in several quarters (ScHNEIDER and HoGEBOOM 1951. IIERS, BERTHET, BERTHET and DE DuvE 1951). The cyclophorase concept has been developed on the basis of experiments with particles prepared in a salt medium from homogcnates made in the Waring blendor.

This interprdation is, in our opinion, difficult to accept, before the general problem has been considered as to how the P/0 ratio of the entire system can be dominated by an added substrate. It is known that addition of succinate as substrate gives rise to an average PJO ratio lower than that for any other substrate in the Krebs cycle. This may appear unreasonable in that all these substrates pass through the cycle an equal number of times, whichever of them is used as the initial substrate. We shall return to this matter when dealing with the oxidation of succinate.

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