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Clays by Alain Meunier

By Alain Meunier

Here's a entire and up to-do-date presentation of the origins, and houses of clay minerals on the Earth?s floor. The textual content reports the quite easy legislation that govern the chemical or isotopic composition and the crystalline constitution of clays, after which discusses their genesis and alteration. Concluding chapters express that clay minerals can shape in number of diverse environments: meteorites, lavas, subduction zones, between others.

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Several processes can take part in the growth of minerals. If working “in parallel”, the fastest one controls the growth rate, but, if working “in series”, it is the slowest one. Kretz (1994) showed that interface-controlled and diffusioncontrolled processes can take over from one another during the growth history of porphyroblasts in metamorphic environments (Fig. 23). This far-reaching work has found many applications in the studies about growth processes of illites (Nagy 1994). interface controlled crystal growth Diffusion controlled crystal growth nucleation rate (b) Teq T(b) T(a) 0 (T-Teq) ∞ Fig.

It is used as a basis by modelling software to calculate diffraction patterns, for instance NEWMOD (Reynolds 1985) or MLM2C (Planc¸on and Drits 2000). M´ering (1949) has proposed an elegant method for readily identifying randomly ordered or ordered mixed-layer minerals by X-ray diffraction. Indeed, he has shown that when the components of the mixed-layer mineral show neighbouring peaks, the latter interfere forming a wider diffraction band with an intermediate angular position. This position varies with the respective amounts of the two components.

Beidellite often exhibits a morphology of hexagonal laths. These crystal habitus are to be related to the degree of turbostratism in the layer stacking. Kaolinite crystals are bigger than smectite crystals and very often exhibit the shape of hexagonal prisms. In soils, particularly in tropical climates, these prisms are flattened and exhibit defects due to substitution of Al3+ for Fe3+ , or even corrosion pits (dissolution). They are bigger and more regular in diagenetic formations. They grow thicker until they take the shape of “books” several tens of microns thick (Fig.

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