By Giacomo Cao, Roberto Orrù
Few books at the moment exist that hide any such large spectrum of themes. The chapters facing pollution from cellular assets, pollution and healthiness results and air caliber modelling fall into the pollution type whereas those on the topic of microalgae for carbon dioxide sequestration/biofuels creation, gasoline cells, and solar power know-how, respectively, might be ascribed to the strength subject. a number of applied sciences to address a large spectrum of environmental toxins are taken into consideration in different chapters. The bankruptcy on biodiversity is obviously concerning the conservation factor, whereas the water pollutants topic is tackled through the bankruptcy on water caliber tracking. eventually, a common research on eco-friendly enterprise, in addition to a bankruptcy on grid/cloud computing know-how for collaborative challenge fixing and shared assets administration finish the paintings. as a result of its breadth of assurance, this booklet is very beneficial as a graduate text.
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Humid Air Motor Technology (HAM) Developed by MAN, combustion temperature reduction and elimination of temperature spikes are both achieved by the addition of steam to the inlet air. To reach significant reductions, the amount of steam introduced must be at least three times higher than the amount of fuel. Importantly, seawater can be used in this system. The main disadvantages are the costs and complexity of the steam plant. This solution is cheaper than the costly ammonia SCR approach to NOx abatement (vide infra).
1 NOx Reduction Methods A considerable number of technological options are available for reduction of NOx from marine vessels (de Jong et al. 2005). These include: • Internal engine modifications (IEM) • Technologies which introduce water in the combustion process • Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) • Selective catalytic reduction The first three options are preventative measures whose aim is to reduce NOx formation during the combustion process by optimising the combustion conditions or controlling the combustion temperature.
Generally speaking, as low CO2 emissions are pursued in Europe, the recent trend has been towards downsizing of engines (Johnson 2011, 2013), particularly in the A (minicars) and B (small cars) car segments. This favours adoption of the new lean-gasoline engine technology which allows significant fuel saving. Due to the lower emission rates, catalysts containing lean NOx trap components can Market share in Italy : Light Duty Diesel Vehicles (% ) 70 31 3,000,000 60 2,500,000 50 2,000,000 40 1,500,000 30 1,000,000 20 500,000 10 0 0 Light Duty Vehicle Sales in Italy (total) Air Pollution from Mobile Sources: Formation and Effects and Abatement Strategies Year Fig.