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Distribution and Biological Role. The Chemistry and Biology by Endre A. Balazs, Roger W. Jeanloz

By Endre A. Balazs, Roger W. Jeanloz

The Amino Sugars: The Chemistry and Biology of Compounds Containing Amino Sugars, quantity IIA: Distribution and organic position specializes in the chemistry, actual chemistry, and biochemistry of certainly taking place and synthetically ready amino sugars and amino sugar-containing molecules, in addition to the organic and scientific significance of those molecules.
The choice first bargains info at the distribution of amino sugars in microorganisms, vegetation, and invertebrates and amino sugars and macromolecules containing amino sugars in liver. Discussions specialize in microorganisms, invertebrates, amino sugar composition, catabolism of amino sugars, and metabolic interrelationships among amino sugars and different sugars. The textual content then takes a glance at amino sugars and macromolecules containing amino sugars in kidney and amino sugar-containing compounds in urine.
The ebook takes a glance at glycoproteins in salivary glands, saliva, and sputum; glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins in pores and skin; and amino sugar-containing compounds in tumors. The textual content additionally evaluates glycosaminoglycans in umbilical wire and glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins in synovial fluid.
The choice is a in charge reference for readers drawn to the learn of amino sugars.

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The JV-acetylglucosamine deacetylase which has been found in several microorganisms was not detected in rabbit liver (Roseman, 1957).

H. Meyer (1950), the internal shell, a transparent, elongated shield, of squid (Loligo) is almost pure chitin. Highly purified anticoagulants, designated as mactin A and mactin B, were isolated by Burson et al. (1956) from two species of clams, Spisula (Mactra) solidissima and Cyprina (Arctica) islandica, respectively. Both mactins proved to be sulfated polysaccharides and contained glucosamine and glucuronic acid. Glucosamine was identified and determined quantitatively by ion-exchange chromatography.

The enzyme aminotransferase was first described by Pogell and Gryder (1957) and is a key step in the synthesis of amino sugars in rat liver. The question of which hexose 6-phosphate is the immediate substrate for this enzyme has received considerable attention. In their original report, Pogell and Gryder (1957) indicated that glucose 6phosphate is the substrate. Subsequently, Ghosh et al. (1960) showed Rat Rat Rat — Phosphoglucomutase UDP-iV-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase U D P-glucosamine pyrophosphorylase UDP-iV-acetylglucosamine 4 / -epimerase U D P-glucosamine é'-epimerase iV-Acetylglucosamine 1-phosphate <=* iV-acetylglucosamine 6-phosphate U T P + iV-acetylglucosamine 1-phosphate <=± UDP-7V-acetylglucosamine + pyrophosphate U T P + glucosamine 1-phosphate *± UDP-glucosamine + pyrophosphate UDP-iV-acetylglucosamine +± UDP-Λ^acetylgalactosamine UDP-glucosamine «=± UDP-galactosamine — Calf — Glucosamine-6-phosphate Λ^-acetylase Glucosamine 6-phosphate + acetylcoenzyme A —> Af-acetylglucosamine 6-phosphate + coenzyme A — Guinea pig; rat Rat Rabbit; human Pigeon Aromatic amine acetylase Glucosamine + acetylcoenzyme A —» N-acetylglucosamine + coenzyme A References Maley and Maley, 1959 Maley and Maley, 1959; Glaser, 1959 Maley, Maley, and Lardy, 1956 Mills, Ondarza, and Smith, 1954; Maley and Lardy, 1956; Strominger and Smith, 1959 Leloir and Cardini, 1956 Davidson, Blumenthal, and Roseman, 1957 Chou and Soodak, 1952; Tabor, Mehler, and Stadtman, 1953 Beef; calf; guinea pig Pogell and Gryder, 1957; Gryder and Pogell, 1960; Ghosh et al, 1960; Glaser and Brown, 1957 Rat Activity demonstrated in 6 Amin otransf erase Enzyme Enzyme purified from 0 Fructose 6-phosphate (glucose-6phosphate) + glutamine —» glucosamine 6-phosphate + glutamic acid Reaction TABLE IV ENZYMIC REACTIONS INVOLVED IN HEXOSAMINE METABOLISM IN THE L I V E R 19.

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