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Bove and Davis' Diving Medicine (Fourth Edition) by Alfred A. Bove, Jefferson Davis

By Alfred A. Bove, Jefferson Davis

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Example text

The ideal volume could be represented as: V (ideal) = V – nb where V = volume measured, b = a constant characteristic of each gas, and n = number of moles. The constant b represents the excluded volume of the molecules that make up the gas; it is different for each gas and has been determined from numerous measurements. Tables of a and b values for various gases are available. 14 The constants a and b are for pure compounds only; values for mixtures, except air, are commonly not available. Diving Physics 33 Adding these new P and V terms to the ideal gas law gives rise to the van der Waals equation for real gases.

13 He measured the volume of air trapped at the small end of a J-shaped tube. The tube was filled with mercury, and the volume of the air space was measured. Adding mercury (increasing the height of mercury in the J-tube) decreased the volume of air trapped at the small end of the Jshaped tube. He noted that the product of the pressure (as determined by the height of the mercury column) and the volume was constant. 01 bar absolute). Determine the pressure at 42°C (315 K). Using Gay-Lussac’s law: PV = k where P = the pressure (height of mercury in tube), V = volume (of air space in tube), k = a constant.

When air is compressed during the filling of a compressed gas cylinder, the temperature rises and the cylinder becomes hot. This increase in temperature can be as much as 1500°F during rapid compressions. In the presence of hydrocarbon contaminants, this heat can serve as an energy source for fire or explosion in an oxygen-enriched atmosphere. When air is rapidly released from a scuba cylinder, either through the direct opening of the valve to release its contents or via the purge valve, the volume of the gas increases and temperature falls.

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