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over the years by many institutions,)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (mentors, colleagues, friends, and members of my family. )Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.074 Tw 1 -1.333 Td (The research for this book was conducted with the support of the)Tj 0.0077 Tc -0.0077 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (International Research and Exchanges Board \(IREX\), the Social Science)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.2349 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Research Council \(SSRC\), various institutions at the University of)Tj 0.144 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Michigan, including Rackham Graduate School, the Department of)Tj 0.1183 Tw T* (History, the Center for Russian and East European Studies, and the)Tj 0.1907 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Institute for Research on Women and Gender. While in Miami at)Tj 0.0997 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Florida International University, I have had the bene\223t of generous)Tj 0.0023 Tc -0.0023 Tw T* (support from the Of\223ce of the Provost, the College of Arts and Scienc\ es)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (at the Department of History.)Tj 0.0004 Tc 0.1519 Tw 1 -1.333 Td (The idea of writing on the history of Russian masculinity was \223rst)Tj 0.0897 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (sparked in Bill Rosenberg\220s graduate research seminar in the winter o\ f)Tj -0.0139 Tc -0.0029 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (1993 in Ann Arbor. Jane Burbank and Bill Rosenberg, my two dissertation)Tj 0.0004 Tc 0.0093 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (advisors, have been unwavering sources of support and encouragement)Tj 0.1294 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (ever since. Special additional thanks go to Kathleen Canning, Valerie)Tj -0.011 Tc -0.0058 Tw T* (Kivelson, and Abby Stewart.)Tj -0.0053 Tc 0.1026 Tw 1 -1.333 Td (In Russia, I received much needed guidance from the staffs of many)Tj -0.0183 Tc -0.0042 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (archives and libraries, including )Tj /T1_1 1 Tf (Rossiiskii gosudarstvennyi istoricheskii arkhiv)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf 0 Tc 0 Tw T* (\()Tj /T1_1 1 Tf -0.0053 Tc 0.347 0 Td (RGIA)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf -0.0054 Tc (\),)Tj /T1_1 1 Tf -0.0053 Tc 0.1988 Tw 3.454 0 Td (Tsentral\220nyi istoricheskii arkhiv Moskvy)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf 0 Tc 0 Tw 18.021 0 Td (\()Tj /T1_1 1 Tf -0.0053 Tc 0.347 0 Td (TsIAM)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf -0.0054 Tc (\),)Tj /T1_1 1 Tf -0.0053 Tc 4.041 0 Td (Gosudarstvennyi)Tj 0.2806 Tw -26.209 -1.333 Td (istoricheskii muzei)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf 0 Tc 0 Tw 8.736 0 Td (\()Tj /T1_1 1 Tf -0.0053 Tc 0.347 0 Td (GIM)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf 0.2805 Tw (\), and )Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 0.2806 Tw (Natsional\220nyi arkhiv Respubliki Tatarstan)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf 0 Tc 0 Tw -9.083 -1.333 Td (\()Tj /T1_1 1 Tf -0.0115 Tc 0.34 0 Td (NART)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf -0.011 Tw (\). I am especially indebted to the assistance of Olga Vainshtein and)Tj -0.0071 Tc -0.0154 Tw -0.341 -1.333 Td (Lyena Weintrab for friendship, conversation, and practical advice during\ )Tj -0.0168 Tc -0.0057 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (my trips to Moscow and St Petersburg.)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0651 Tw 1 -1.333 Td (Many individuals have provided me with camaraderie, friendship,)Tj 0.0058 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (and intellectual exchange over the years, they include \(and the list is\ )Tj 0.4074 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (by no means exhaustive\), Kate Brown, Jane Burbank, Kathleen)Tj 0.196 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Canning, Barbara Clements, Deborah Cohen, Paul Deslandes, Dan)Tj 0.0033 Tc -0.0033 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Healey, Lara Kriegel, Stephen Lovell, Jon Mogul, Karen Petrone, Debbie)Tj 0.0165 Tc -0.0165 Tw T* (Field, Amy Randall, John Randolf, Bill Rosenberg, Alison Smith, Abby)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.1479 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Stewart, Olga Vainshtein, Lyena Weintraub, Mary Wheeler, Kirsten)Tj 0.0012 Tc -0.0012 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Wood, and especially Kristin McGuire, who has been there for me until)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.119 Tw T* (the bitter end. Jane Burbank, Barbara Clements, Dan Healey, Isabel)Tj 0.0669 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Hull, Alan Kahan, Catriona Kelly, Stephen Lovell, Jon Mogul, David)Tj 0.0153 Tc -0.0153 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Ransel, Bill Rosenberg, Richard Stites, and Kirsten Wood all read parts)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0014 Tw T* (of this manuscript in various forms and offered much needed advice. )Tj 0.0056 Tc 0 Tw 8 0 0 8 185.276 49.141 Tm (ix)Tj ET endstream endobj 95 0 obj << /Width 49 /Filter /FlateDecode /Height 76 /Length 775 /BitsPerComponent 8 /ColorSpace 8 0 R >> stream HVA 1xnjO`'S5{%Eo$eŘDuէ w|t3{S*4ʪR^7ªWUů> ;b{]$Alr5n}I||qmɗ;l!$9ZBC*"fu{ϟFe>Xª, $3< 2#3Gtc< 0͵WzbELТȽ6ӲUWz Q@jY𜏇ٺ~8n4ëL$ 1 Q;~X;3Z&3Bx/ 03< !z:Q" y6w6VTB=2<#iթD$w6nJ5˓>RTj58`>=p<(MPH:\6%V+({Yez(JKSZ-Dگu+HV\O|x,cTG~8'X#-VG%׈,\ZsHn"#MpsNu3NiTKzfرtW OhB[Pwo-V[nwޞ݁ B|3IT*ӆ:֐ HQۉsUk^2Β%Nx/霰KK(^1 M/8*]=m38'2ޗݗ:L|tw'wE endstream endobj 93 0 obj << /Resources << /Font << /T1_1 33 0 R /T1_0 15 0 R >> /ProcSet [/PDF /Text] /ExtGState << /GS0 20 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /CS0 21 0 R >> >> /TrimBox [0.0 0.0 392.59 614.185] /Contents 94 0 R /Parent 1 0 R /Type /Page /Thumb 95 0 R /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 392.59 614.185] /CropBox [0.0000457764 0.0000534058 392.59 614.185] /BleedBox [0.0 0.0 392.59 614.185] >> endobj 98 0 obj << /Length 2819 >> stream BT /CS0 cs 1 scn /GS0 gs /T1_0 1 Tf 0.0171 Tc 0.09 Tw 9 0 0 9 51.83 546.689 Tm (I am grateful for their guidance. At Palgrave Macmillan, I gratefully)Tj 0.0059 Tc -0.0059 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (acknowledge Luciana O\220Flaherty, Daniel Bunyard, and the anonymous)Tj 0.0066 Tc -0.0066 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (reviewer. In addition to the individuals mentioned above, I owe a debt)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.2212 Tw T* (of thanks to my many friends and colleagues in Miami, Surfside, )Tj 0.3095 Tw T* (and the History Department and Humanities Program at Florida)Tj 0.0589 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (International University. I am also very fortunate in having had the)Tj 0.0026 Tc -0.0026 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (help of Raisa Kirsanova in securing the image that appears as the jacket\ )Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw T* (illustration to this book.)Tj 0.0007 Tc -0.0007 Tw 1 -1.333 Td (Last, but not least, I thank my family, both native and new \(Max and)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.084 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (Ellen Friedman, Sonia Friedman, Jerry, Sam and Angela Weinhouse,)Tj 0.2174 Tw T* (Jack Glazer, Louis and Kathy Mogul, Jeff Mogul, Patty Page, Judy)Tj 0.0278 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Mogul, Danny, Ilona, Hannah and Josh Kramer\) for their encourage-)Tj 0.0072 Tc -0.0072 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (ment and much needed distraction over the years. I dedicate this book)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.1111 Tw T* (to Jon, Simon, and Joseph Mogul, all three of whom have seen me)Tj 0.1429 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (through this and \205 somehow \205 still allowed me to live with them. )Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (All errors are of course my own. )Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.225 Tw 0 -2.667 TD (A few sections of this book have been published elsewhere. Both)Tj 0.0504 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Palgrave Macmillan and )Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 12.053 0 Td (The Russian Review)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf 9.35 0 Td (have generously allowed)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw -21.403 -1.333 Td (me to reprint them here.)Tj 0.0171 Tc 1 -1.333 Td (In transliterating Russian titles, words, and names, I have generally)Tj 0.0703 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (used the Library of Congress system, except in the case of names or)Tj 0.2201 Tw T* (places that are already familiar to readers in alternative spellings:)Tj 0.3398 Tw T* (Nicholas instead of Nikolai; Alexander instead of Aleksandr, for)Tj 0.0873 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (example. I have also consistently tried to use modern diction when)Tj 0.008 Tc 0 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (possible:)Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 4.361 0 Td (moskovskogo)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf 0.0079 Tc -0.0079 Tw 5.985 0 Td (instead of )Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 0.008 Tc 0 Tw (moskovskago)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf 0.0079 Tc -0.0079 Tw (, etc. All translations from)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw -10.346 -1.333 Td (the Russian are my own, unless otherwise indicated.)Tj 25.787 -2.667 Td (Surfside, Florida)Tj 3.098 -1.333 Td (July 2004)Tj 0 Tc 0 Tw 8 0 0 8 51.83 571.424 Tm (x)Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 0.0056 Tc 1.445 0 Td (Acknowledgements)Tj ET endstream endobj 99 0 obj << /Width 49 /Filter /FlateDecode /Height 76 /Length 561 /BitsPerComponent 8 /ColorSpace 8 0 R >> stream HU1r0 c1usǤwnIv|R\dbږdx'# ցEsb- l?8c9fxҭ)~/#(Yم0 h&C'Y?.花E畡z8=r-VKs=sjQY-1W;|&)&DUhpգc>G0*B)#VcsХ GNKoi$/ i}ٵQW&:*E5Imwq"ܑ RMrOuW[Vާ* eWUNTJɕ<Α M]-t-_KDEU8䄼.GW,)ݪ[mYjj%fK⫩Thg.m&UH֑L I5TKvYj '~xΉ4 endstream endobj 97 0 obj << /Resources << /Font << /T1_1 33 0 R /T1_0 15 0 R >> /ProcSet [/PDF /Text] /ExtGState << /GS0 20 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /CS0 21 0 R >> >> /TrimBox [0.0 0.0 392.59 614.185] /Contents 98 0 R /Parent 1 0 R /Type /Page /Thumb 99 0 R /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 392.59 614.185] /CropBox [0.0000457764 0.0000534058 392.59 614.185] /BleedBox [0.0 0.0 392.59 614.185] >> endobj 104 0 obj << /Subtype /Type1C /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 53627 >> stream H|W ٟٙkY5.{{i׻8~Tnvgofgٙ+&@m Zm4jV`(M45!!`дMT )3wI?72<ϰ,{hcj{4<:9Uw>>>Z/fx_c^]8]`љ%L73lb1df^`~˼Ƽ\`>dC*]Ʈ`Ʈeo5cv7 {=c=Ƅgbĺbwcc1#={??7BZX*BA(T__xDxL8$BxI8) Wl\/)j|]{ߏ?io߉3~5iBJ|.4ML[=/&N$&J\J\K tdg'yGrC򾤝l&J8y8gWҩ%ԆT53'u0u(>9qxTčfqhO|R<"($ωo$-HIˤ^iT6I$[#@zJzVzI:!,]zO4+3,w )k-dO~@'H~J|\~U>#U~W~_*PdeDTrJRP6)Ki(S~ igqrA@|򪤦եjV]jEݡzՇazB=^V-Җh_zmUk3w}'vF{S{G]n蚾X5zQߪwG''#1e~Q_կ럦SϦoM}*m^kWmf0=g:Yg 7jxj|SkadvգK[v%gpT/p\]hgv6'8)$F-3+Qa 憏!|):Pr{qƯeƀiD2:CRso{lDچͣ]E0I/U֢ D~<_d@Y2MUS!a[%`yl^4"p"QIK1*総R^JgC JH;%Gdy ƨs{= s)2&=TVPڹ5BqH!wvV洔C3T1ɵ&z@7Qj(@Ö9F-<ҵ7*l9J؎Nj uGs0}b*YXMz7C -oO oxR+YՒ Oa?|K!EBs+0|d̢<~mutaf"k0QAl~1t-Ͼz.Gً`5Ngw&_q' 73C׀DB&o5)87Rg&f2Ů10v;`@On岾lH dfƴe rj ({|t{;2.\`Օq/30s-v붻7VV<% 2a},[@ bk]>km}Dhil{w7O_|s>-Z'}86$Hgtʁd)=X'O_"bI7U?IR^֨oDEGFshK bc5Yu\YF摝ˉk댻baBRAPoGkbbW.aW;pį)*VW9bx, VbkllVUcz `v̇ucaSdj1szl!mqzf# GC>qU{iS/=W}d%X^~6 ^-FoYUWѬo4m0I:L uuM}<#Ηp C&Bl4v"AkIXx!qQ -]lޘ՜eXC"&HG@ݓ󎉄tu)^./'τcu@1}^P1`ۊ~mBLQqdliO.a=CCkeXٚIJ;`ܹASӹs 1qY˚ prunc]+:z<+d資oyCʹQ+k}Ʌo6"u#nM /nBS#_0,%TmNkz]îcÎt#J$qOQnd)0ЄqO8Z_Uۢvw9viO&b=\Yg" uΓ>v$254D"溍"(1u(H4 #ū7lXn$ZFd4)!/txp7TCWy_rJo*ٱ"#㓇b8M u@|)8',9w2n6\fsoך |a՚C&?}uS>k]oA K Vn!:^_ j 1%[f#I;P 2nq]1JƑzXoBRͻy+*^+JZHmN3C2lR#x=lk;@X: M;l463SuFopp6ͨk?1?@i^5,'a?rq~ Tgr,e5!FftSv{+V2Qռa̎l;OCc㮣wJp.70pk`lOWn |C#YCYaZuWZ_zʿ'W4~Ӱ4H7~8`Ѓxxj3q~/wd>cY! 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FTDY?ztO{YGGܩCϯߠ`dqLHۖ엹Fz=[; f^x1c^{y&xwH| crK]!KG_kI:Q#IΕ\; :gksa0\ qV(}>g'۠iE^͸ɛ[?zwSƖ܉kM3<9W> 2~-oͥ&JXU9ps\v]᱖m)i,8k ۺY 40:3h#Ir ƒ%0;h_m)ܬW[*̗\|dQB5F[S4LCl5Fxn \\I ]ēWRf߇k;(o{,o?%o #CO:Cob~<F+cW X*Pe^g얃P.$9v?W{H[W%5Ƅ$)A? `L9 RiyoG4RcI)FnR&E-ȺvcCnى;{}p u!VMw RV¡`(hIzפ% x'Cb|w˞(HnI#AbjCX6l5FOǹjЁ|f-^̐oڇ,6A'U#Q]Ї=-KR?#&^€Wb|W ncJ|GfC 5kbCƲ>#n1ߌyna 4G,ѝCP#ZeDw<nZ'l#of F4[cD Đ} [" țĬ":ܜ%^vrbA`ztQ4wnܘ_DC~r?_rx \1z|}d]Ldm0Kwy|0[\vIw$F.%8K`.Nzƥ i._*++rx0o lrHiA.qbCCP C(S> endobj 105 0 obj << /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /Widths [250 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 250 0 250 0 500 0 500 0 0 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 538 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 645 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 404 500 400 509 396 0 0 0 257 0 0 0 787 525 0 0 0 332 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 790] /Subtype /Type1 /Type /Font /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 169 /FontDescriptor 106 0 R /BaseFont /TqfmdfAGaramondPro-Regular >> endobj 108 0 obj << /SA false /SM 1.0 >> endobj 109 0 obj << /Length 3557 >> stream BT /CS0 cs 1 scn /GS0 gs /T1_0 1 Tf 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw 18 0 0 18 38.83 540.076 Tm (Introduction: Revising Old)Tj 0 -1.111 TD (Narratives \205 Masculinity and)Tj T* (Autocracy in the Nineteenth)Tj 0 Tw T* [(Centur)-12.1(y)]TJ 0.0171 Tc 0.0483 Tw 9 0 0 9 38.83 379.076 Tm (Nostalgically recalling his days as a Kazan\220 University student in th\ e)Tj 0.0079 Tc -0.0079 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (1840s, Nicholas Osviannikov described how the university constituted)Tj 0.0171 Tc -0.0077 Tw T* (\217a cherished dream of every young boy\220 and how \217a young man cou\ ld)Tj 0.0121 Tc -0.0121 Tw T* (instinctually feel that here he would experience everything he needed)Tj 0.0171 Tc -0.006 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (for his future conscious life.\220)Tj 0 Tc 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 162.543 334.225 Tm (1)Tj 0.0171 Tc -0.006 Tw 9 0 0 9 168.685 331.076 Tm (To another student memoirist, the uni-)Tj 0.0133 Tc -0.0133 Tw -14.428 -1.333 Td (versity seemed \217an enchanted island in the middle of the sea \203 whe\ re)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0239 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (one experiences a baptism of the soul.\220)Tj 0 Tc 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 208.695 310.225 Tm (2)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0238 Tw 9 0 0 9 215.105 307.076 Tm (A third student recalled that)Tj 0.0037 Tc -0.0037 Tw -19.586 -1.333 Td (his admission to Moscow University was \217the \223rst notable achieveme\ nt)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.182 Tw T* (in my life, not to mention the most important \203 It indicated an)Tj 0.0128 Tc -0.0128 Tw T* (entrance into a new age and a new walk of life \203 Childhood had now)Tj 0.011 Tc -0.011 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (passed \203 We became adults \203 With such pride I wore my [university]\ )Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (blue color and sword, the accessories of an adult \205 man!\220)Tj 0 Tc 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 277.659 250.225 Tm (3)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0281 Tw 9 0 0 9 47.83 235.076 Tm (In memoir accounts such as these, men who had attended Russian)Tj 0.1336 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (universities in the \223rst half of the nineteenth century remembered)Tj 0.0585 Tw T* (their student days as a formative period. At universities, young men)Tj 0.6009 Tw T* (developed enduring intellectual and ideological commitments,)Tj 0.0103 Tc -0.0103 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (embarked on careers of loyal state service or revolutionary opposition,)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0028 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (and started friendships that lasted decades. To be sure, the university)Tj 0.0078 Tc -0.0078 Tw T* (sent men on disparate paths, intellectually, politically, and personally\ .)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0362 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (But, regardless of where they ended up, former students looked back)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (on the university as a place where they had come of age.)Tj 0.007 Tc -0.007 Tw 1 -1.333 Td (This book explores the notions of masculinity that students encoun-)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0251 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (tered and created during their three or four years at universities, and)Tj 0.1457 Tw T* (especially those in Kazan\220, Moscow, and St Petersburg. It considers)Tj 0.0101 Tc -0.0101 Tw T* (both the university as a formal institution, and the conduct and views)Tj 0.0152 Tc -0.0152 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (of the students and administrators who populated it. Rather than sin-)Tj 0.0154 Tc -0.0154 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (gling out any particular group of university students \205 whether futur\ e)Tj 0 Tc 0 Tw 8 0 0 8 186.534 49.141 Tm (1)Tj 0.5 g /GS1 gs /T1_1 9 Tf 1 0 0 1 37.979 39.363 Tm (R. Friedman, )Tj /T1_2 9 Tf 1 0 0 1 86.516 39.363 Tm (Masculinity, Autocracy and the Russian University, 1804\2261863)Tj /T1_1 9 Tf -48.537 -10 Td (\251 Rebecca Friedman 2005)Tj ET endstream endobj 110 0 obj << /Width 49 /Filter /FlateDecode /Height 76 /Length 716 /BitsPerComponent 8 /ColorSpace 8 0 R >> stream HVy0 0q8Ln9qSSQ{_ƲG"H_743V*5_L f9C ɕZcEkiY+ wk֣ "s}='XW+жf<=C,xO#9A'1zVz ه^d!1,TqJ]1DKpm=pӓDB4o3]T"-Rq.O!p ē "wxcb9:3H] gWحHL*'Ί> /ProcSet [/PDF /Text] /ExtGState << /GS1 108 0 R /GS0 20 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /CS0 21 0 R >> >> /TrimBox [0.0 0.0 392.59 614.185] /Contents 109 0 R /Parent 1 0 R /Type /Page /Thumb 110 0 R /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 392.59 614.185] /CropBox [0.0000457764 0.0000534058 392.59 614.185] /BleedBox [0.0 0.0 392.59 614.185] >> endobj 113 0 obj << /Length 4625 >> stream BT /CS0 cs 1 scn /GS0 gs /T1_0 1 Tf 0.0169 Tc -0.0169 Tw 9 0 0 9 51.83 546.689 Tm (radicals, reformers, or bureaucrats \205 it highlights the common experi\ -)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (ences of cohorts of young Russian men at a crucial point in their lives.\ )Tj 0.0131 Tc -0.0131 Tw 1 -1.333 Td (The book focuses on the reign of Nicholas I \(1825\20555\), the so-calle\ d)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0793 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (apogee of autocracy. During these decades, the Russian government)Tj 0.0028 Tc -0.0028 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (turned to the universities as an instrument for the cultivation of obedi\ -)Tj 0.0074 Tc -0.0074 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (ent, respectable men, ideal servitors of the autocratic state. But even \ as)Tj 0.0171 Tc -0.0121 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (students learned to act as administrators as the university regulations)Tj 0.0623 Tw T* (demanded, they also created their own social spaces and forged and)Tj 0.0063 Tc -0.0063 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (transmitted their own masculine ideals, which were often at odds with)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.1185 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (of\223cial prescriptions. Even at the height of autocratic control, men)Tj 0.0135 Tc -0.0135 Tw T* (were \217agents in their own making.\220)Tj 0 Tc 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 200.837 429.839 Tm (4)Tj 0.0135 Tc -0.0135 Tw 9 0 0 9 206.856 426.689 Tm (By examining the making of mas-)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0451 Tw -17.225 -1.333 Td (culinity through the interplay among different agents \205 government)Tj 0.2201 Tw T* (of\223cials, university administrators, and students themselves \205 thi\ s)Tj 0.0119 Tc -0.0119 Tw T* (study sheds light on key areas of Russian history in the decades before)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw T* (the Great Reforms.)Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 0.0058 Tc -0.0058 Tw 10 0 0 10 51.83 351.689 Tm (Masculinity in modern Europe)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf 0.0056 Tc 0.0665 Tw 9 0 0 9 51.83 330.689 Tm (Within Russian studies, the history of masculinity, until recently, has)Tj -0.0014 Tc -0.0102 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (been a neglected \223eld of inquiry. In recent years, as scholarship on \ mas-)Tj 0.004 Tc -0.0156 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (culinity in Russia has emerged, it has tended to focus on the Soviet and\ )Tj 0.0056 Tc 0.059 Tw T* (post-Soviet eras.)Tj 0 Tc 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 120.747 297.839 Tm (5)Tj 0.0056 Tc 0.059 Tw 9 0 0 9 127.302 294.689 Tm (The study of masculinity, however, grounded in the)Tj 0.0052 Tc -0.0168 Tw -8.386 -1.333 Td (broader \223eld of gender studies, has \223gured prominently in a number\ of)Tj 0.0056 Tc 0.2839 Tw T* (historians\220 accounts of other European societies in the nineteenth)Tj 0.002 Tc -0.0136 Tw T* (century. These accounts offer a useful starting point for considering th\ e)Tj -0.0059 Tc -0.0057 Tw T* (Russian experience.)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0285 Tw 1 -1.333 Td (Historians and theorists of gender have shown how norms of mas-)Tj 0.016 Tc -0.016 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (culinity and femininity are never monolithic, but rather encompass a)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0616 Tw T* (range of contradictory and complementary impulses.)Tj 0 Tc 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 285.162 213.839 Tm (6)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0616 Tw 9 0 0 9 291.912 210.689 Tm (In\224uenced by)Tj 0.0021 Tc -0.0021 Tw -26.676 -1.333 Td (feminist theory, gender historians tend to reject natural, transhistoric\ al)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.144 Tw T* (understandings of masculinity and femininity, and instead explore)Tj 0.0161 Tc -0.0161 Tw T* (how gender ideologies change over time and across space. Once inde-)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.1937 Tw T* (pendent of sex, gender \217becomes a free-\224oating arti\223ce\220 subj\ ect to)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (change by \217individuals, groups, institutions and societies.\220)Tj 0 Tc 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 297.258 153.839 Tm (7)Tj 0.0113 Tc 0.0661 Tw 9 0 0 9 60.83 138.689 Tm (European historiography has built on these theoretical frameworks)Tj 0.353 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (and emphasized that masculinity, like femininity, has a history.)Tj 0.0076 Tc -0.0135 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Historians have explained the shifting and contested nature of societal)Tj 0.0113 Tc 0.2156 Tw T* (expectations of what constitutes appropriate manliness \205 from the)Tj 0 Tc -0.0059 Tw T* (Hellenic image of homoerotic attachment to the bourgeois ideal, which)Tj 0.0059 Tc -0.0118 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (combines physical strength and domesticity.)Tj 0 Tc 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 241.365 81.839 Tm (8)Tj 0.0059 Tc -0.0118 Tw 9 0 0 9 247.288 78.689 Tm (This historiography con-)Tj 0.0113 Tc 0.0081 Tw -21.718 -1.333 Td (nects changing ideas about masculinity not only with femininity, but)Tj 0 Tc 0 Tw 8 0 0 8 51.83 571.424 Tm (2)Tj /T1_2 1 Tf 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw 1.446 0 Td (Masculinity, Autocracy, and the Russian University)Tj ET endstream endobj 114 0 obj << /Width 49 /Filter /FlateDecode /Height 76 /Length 792 /BitsPerComponent 8 /ColorSpace 8 0 R >> stream HV0 d1P2 qvŒw">cޜ>.ł#b(&bqWqyEhkr^8b%`@X5loM.CBEXrUV[XF/y߬8D` EXo 7F /Ol\ K,Jq{["ֆ. =ǡ#::! rP%f:; 9{1GU`Jř&.z8\o݉Wѓ2lmJ^KSN^)w>*e> /ProcSet [/PDF /Text] /ExtGState << /GS0 20 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /CS0 21 0 R >> >> /TrimBox [0.0 0.0 392.59 614.185] /Contents 113 0 R /Parent 1 0 R /Type /Page /Thumb 114 0 R /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 392.59 614.185] /CropBox [0.0000457764 0.0000534058 392.59 614.185] /BleedBox [0.0 0.0 392.59 614.185] >> endobj 117 0 obj << /Length 5005 >> stream BT /CS0 cs 1 scn /GS0 gs /T1_0 1 Tf 0.0113 Tc 0.0602 Tw 9 0 0 9 38.83 546.689 Tm (also with broad social, economic, and cultural dynamics, such as the)Tj -0.0019 Tc -0.004 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (emergence of new social groups, the birth of nations, changing political\ )Tj 0 Tc -0.0059 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (ideologies, and the relationship between state and society.)Tj 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 282.945 525.839 Tm (9)Tj 0.025 Tc -0.0137 Tw 9 0 0 9 47.83 510.689 Tm (A number of scholars of modern Europe have highlighted the pro-)Tj 0.0286 Tc 0.1623 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (found changes in gender norms that were underway in the early)Tj 0.0233 Tc -0.0119 Tw T* (nineteenth century.)Tj 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 128.169 489.839 Tm (10)Tj -0.012 Tw 9 0 0 9 137.844 486.689 Tm (They have suggested, in particular, that at the)Tj 0.0135 Tc -0.0022 Tw -11.002 -1.333 Td (dawn of the nineteenth century, monarchs, modern states, and social)Tj 0.0205 Tc -0.0092 Tw T* (institutions were negotiating for control over the formation of social)Tj 0.0202 Tc -0.0089 Tw T* (identities, including the transformation of gender norms. Isabel Hull)Tj 0.0285 Tc -0.0026 Tw T* (describes how in Germany-speaking central Europe, over the course)Tj 0.0482 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, absolutist states began)Tj 0.0213 Tc -0.01 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (not only \217to relinquish [their] \203 monopoly over public life,\220 b\ ut also)Tj 0.0285 Tc 0.0285 Tw T* (to oversee the making of an independent civil society.)Tj 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 282.024 405.839 Tm (11)Tj 0.0285 Tw 9 0 0 9 292.171 402.689 Tm (With their)Tj 0.0187 Tc -0.0074 Tw -28.149 -1.333 Td (control over the lives of their subjects diminished, regimes no longer)Tj 0.0179 Tc -0.0066 Tw T* (attempted to retain exclusive power over the regulation and molding)Tj 0.0124 Tc -0.0011 Tw T* (of behavior.)Tj 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 90.61 369.839 Tm (12)Tj -0.0011 Tw 9 0 0 9 100.157 366.689 Tm (In the emergent spaces of civil society \205 from voluntary)Tj 0.0285 Tc 0.019 Tw -6.814 -1.333 Td (associations to the press \205 groups of individuals \(composed of male)Tj 0.2077 Tw T* (members of the middle classes\) articulated their own notions of)Tj 0.0997 Tw T* (respectability and morality. Male subjects became male citizens as)Tj 0.0279 Tc -0.0166 Tw T* (they began to shape their own social and gender norms.)Tj 0.028 Tc 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 286.694 321.839 Tm (13)Tj 0.0279 Tc -0.0165 Tw 9 0 0 9 296.423 318.689 Tm (The nine-)Tj 0.0173 Tc -0.006 Tw -28.621 -1.333 Td (teenth century thus witnessed the birth of a new hegemonic norm of)Tj 0.0282 Tc -0.0169 Tw T* (respectable masculinity, emanating from within institutions of civil)Tj 0.0171 Tc -0.0058 Tw T* (society, and a diminishing role for the state.)Tj 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 230.63 285.839 Tm (14)Tj -0.0102 Tw 9 0 0 9 47.83 270.689 Tm (Scholars have described how this new nineteenth-century man was)Tj 0.0151 Tc -0.0151 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (distinctly a product of the emergent middle classes.)Tj 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 260.685 261.839 Tm (15)Tj -0.0151 Tw 9 0 0 9 270.161 258.689 Tm (This respectable)Tj 0.011 Tc -0.011 Tw -25.703 -1.333 Td (masculinity was one of the ways in which members of the bourgeoisie)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0604 Tw T* (de\223ned themselves vis-\340-vis both the excesses of the aristocracy a\ nd)Tj 0.0075 Tc -0.0075 Tw T* (the \217\223lth\220 of the working classes. The decent bourgeois man, in\ theory,)Tj 0.0064 Tc -0.0064 Tw T* (minded his manners and his morals. He was modest, clean, polite, and)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.2532 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (self-controlled, particularly with respect to his sexual desires. His)Tj 0.0032 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (manhood also rested on his status in the domestic realm, as husband)Tj 0.0144 Tc -0.0144 Tw T* (and father.)Tj 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 86.109 177.839 Tm (16)Tj -0.0144 Tw 9 0 0 9 95.576 174.689 Tm (The new Victorian middle-class man derived his power \205)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0388 Tw -6.305 -1.333 Td (and asserted his masculinity \205 from within the institutions of social\ ,)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw T* (political, and domestic life.)Tj 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 154.253 153.839 Tm (17)Tj 0.0117 Tc -0.0117 Tw 9 0 0 9 47.83 138.689 Tm (The conduct of Russian men, by contrast, was overseen by the state,)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.2205 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (to varying degrees, from the days of Peter the Great \(1682\2051725\))Tj 0.1094 Tw T* (through the nineteenth century. The modern Russian state actively)Tj 0.0225 Tw T* (attempted to regulate the behavior of its elites through institutional,)Tj -0.0013 Tw T* (legal, and \205 in same cases \205 coercive means.)Tj 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 227.746 93.839 Tm (18)Tj -0.0013 Tw 9 0 0 9 237.389 90.689 Tm (Petrine prohibitions on)Tj 0.007 Tc -0.007 Tw -22.062 -1.333 Td (beards and prescriptions for dress were meant to help transform Russia)Tj 0.016 Tc -0.016 Tw T* (into a modern polity complete with a westernized elite. Peter\220s effor\ ts)Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 0.0056 Tc 0 Tw 8 0 0 8 284.36 571.424 Tm (Introduction)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf 0 Tc 6.235 0 Td (3)Tj ET endstream endobj 118 0 obj << /Width 49 /Filter /FlateDecode /Height 76 /Length 837 /BitsPerComponent 8 /ColorSpace 8 0 R >> stream HVu0 d1P 3P*B1ζ gRl9qr}ZQ?O43?bVd"q7n_-i1qwVb9 [-1^ZP[^q6k0 h!Kf$ƨcA+,zN&}/8u‚zۅT&%. ރգv&Zs/ΕXډ*U>.Ma#KpFanG!6T3qnWUHvn'-5fVƙ%V4 Tc{AFp3@S͚"X]zR'CFt̉3y{~+rMMb0.2LBEqA XF-<}B=s5 AOy)c!2?1c,􈥎rF$q/+92"2.NL_>!8å ,Z{ur-2q{PK׸jj ~V3,SlfHQ۰BҎxh!KZ.w0 M2Ǵ"eM>KM/.rҹk"pJnyhYo!Yo#1.~P"X42{e53)Ҳ=?[1@T S#<~POs^VqW7K}]<3gnYnY5=>![O@jz1s#?̺33SE;(vbG*R쏐2xfjpkw endstream endobj 116 0 obj << /Resources << /Font << /T1_1 33 0 R /T1_0 15 0 R >> /ProcSet [/PDF /Text] /ExtGState << /GS0 20 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /CS0 21 0 R >> >> /TrimBox [0.0 0.0 392.59 614.185] /Contents 117 0 R /Parent 1 0 R /Type /Page /Thumb 118 0 R /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 392.59 614.185] /CropBox [0.0000457764 0.0000534058 392.59 614.185] /BleedBox [0.0 0.0 392.59 614.185] >> endobj 121 0 obj << /Length 4552 >> stream BT /CS0 cs 1 scn /GS0 gs /T1_0 1 Tf 0.0171 Tc 0.2668 Tw 9 0 0 9 51.83 546.689 Tm (at molding behavior, though, concentrated primarily on external)Tj 0.1637 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (conduct. Catherine the Great \(1762\20596\) too relied on the law and)Tj 0.0352 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (police in her efforts to create a westernized, re\223ned elite. But, unl\ ike)Tj 0.0087 Tc -0.0087 Tw T* (Peter, Catherine was also interested in promoting \217the internal mecha\ -)Tj 0.0156 Tc -0.0156 Tw T* (nisms of behavior regulation\220 through programs of education and the)Tj 0.0115 Tc -0.0115 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (spread of conduct literature. Under Catherine\220s guidance, \217the Rus\ sian)Tj 0.0051 Tc -0.0051 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (population was to police itself as well as be policed\220 by the autocra\ cy.)Tj 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 345.083 477.839 Tm (19)Tj 0.0171 Tc -0.0011 Tw 9 0 0 9 60.83 462.689 Tm (Alexander I \(1810\20525\) concentrated on the creation of new institu-)Tj 0.0042 Tc -0.0042 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (tions in order to shape behavior and mold the social identities of those\ )Tj 0.0161 Tc -0.0161 Tw T* (who would serve in prominent state positions. As part of these efforts)Tj 0.0154 Tc -0.0154 Tw T* (to train more young men for key positions within the civil service, he)Tj 0.0141 Tc -0.0141 Tw T* (expanded the university system in 1804 and created the Tsarskoe Selo)Tj 0.0136 Tc -0.0136 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Lyceum in 1811.)Tj 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 123.551 405.839 Tm (20)Tj -0.0136 Tw 9 0 0 9 133.008 402.689 Tm (At these institutions, young men were taught to be)Tj 0.0128 Tc -0.0128 Tw -9.02 -1.333 Td (honorable and polite. At the same time, Alexander never fully exerted)Tj 0.0095 Tc -0.0095 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (autocratic control over these new institutions, allowing for a degree of\ )Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.05 Tw T* (autonomy in the curricular and personnel matters. Moreover, in the)Tj 0.1886 Tw T* (\223rst decades of the nineteenth century, members of polite society)Tj 0.0005 Tc -0.0005 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (could turn to other institutions for advice and direction. They read pre\ -)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0485 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (scriptive literature in various forms \205 much of which came to Russia)Tj 0.266 Tw T* (from Europe \205 and participated in institutions of a nascent civil)Tj -0.0028 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (society, from )Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 0 Tw (salons)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf -0.0028 Tw 9.705 0 Td (to more formal literary societies.)Tj 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 280.146 309.839 Tm (21)Tj -0.0028 Tw 9 0 0 9 289.775 306.689 Tm (This combina-)Tj 0.1179 Tw -26.438 -1.333 Td (tion of institutional autonomy and access to ideas emanating from)Tj 0.1446 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (semi-autonomous arenas, including the press and literary societies,)Tj 0.3093 Tw T* (suggests that the autocracy\220s priorities did not include complete)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw T* (control over the upbringing of its young men. )Tj 0.0124 Tc -0.0124 Tw 1 -1.333 Td (Nicholas I, by contrast, formally granted no such autonomy. Armed)Tj 0.0073 Tc -0.0073 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (with the Romantic conviction that autocracy was Russia\220s only natural\ )Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.3909 Tw T* (and legitimate form of governance, Nicholas sought to control)Tj 0.1726 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (autonomous impulses, strengthen the autocracy, and guarantee its)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (continuation. Distrustful of institutions and their potential for the cr\ e-)Tj 0.0075 Tc -0.0075 Tw T* (ation of diffuse loyalties, Nicholas put his energies into the cultivati\ on)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.1069 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (of loyal individuals. He both created new institutions and used the)Tj 0.0739 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (regime\220s available coercive structures to mold trustworthy men who)Tj 0.0603 Tw T* (would staff his bureaucracies and devote themselves to the Tsar and)Tj 0.0093 Tc 0 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Fatherland.)Tj 5.85 0 0 5.85 102.175 141.839 Tm (22)Tj -0.0093 Tw 9 0 0 9 111.583 138.689 Tm (The making of obedient, respectable Russian men was at)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw -6.639 -1.333 Td (the heart of the Nicholaevan project of state-building.)Tj 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 280.825 129.839 Tm (23)Tj /T1_2 1 Tf 0.0058 Tc -0.0058 Tw 10 0 0 10 51.83 99.689 Tm (Nicholas I and the \217civilizing mission\220)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf 0.0115 Tc -0.0115 Tw 9 0 0 9 51.83 78.689 Tm (Nicholas I came to power in the shadow of the Decembrist Uprising, a)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.1931 Tw T* (loosely organized revolt by a group of Russia\220s most elite military)Tj 0 Tc 0 Tw 8 0 0 8 51.83 571.424 Tm (4)Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw 1.446 0 Td (Masculinity, Autocracy, and the Russian University)Tj ET endstream endobj 122 0 obj << /Width 49 /Filter /FlateDecode /Height 76 /Length 791 /BitsPerComponent 8 /ColorSpace 8 0 R >> stream HVA0 aa0tÐשfƁ8M>{}5/`FEZTs|YԨ{ lϏȓYh Jx3`j^+: ';;CuJ-:rZD $s5L,5~6_A εO7tT۴,ylj xÏ C_1evՎ[;f,:+wQ+D94Շ?( 1&H@~ 9~Y7{G,L+B"/%y ֠WƅZ`xbա.J(f}X]#2zvZ^υH@X.Gc8RC5PT/BR,p61}d=䛆(&S<2tE ]GNqoh?pc\uT mٜxULҶv@nXjLN~A*+XJEiL[R;JlA LYgv^ WtTF"N*"/60'6ô֊fj,RQyNFޱOyR^%'c {y˻VrCG~RTO 1!{N 6cIZ=؂/.KSCo>Y͘Nbna|temwTuf6Em~^M>o@2}qU,~BCz\ v`T9AHk^a{ӷn 613}~Ցq3=*Vk : endstream endobj 120 0 obj << /Resources << /Font << /T1_2 38 0 R /T1_1 33 0 R /T1_0 15 0 R >> /ProcSet [/PDF /Text] /ExtGState << /GS0 20 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /CS0 21 0 R >> >> /TrimBox [0.0 0.0 392.59 614.185] /Contents 121 0 R /Parent 1 0 R /Type /Page /Thumb 122 0 R /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 392.59 614.185] /CropBox [0.0000457764 0.0000534058 392.59 614.185] /BleedBox [0.0 0.0 392.59 614.185] >> endobj 125 0 obj << /Length 4988 >> stream BT /CS0 cs 1 scn /GS0 gs /T1_0 1 Tf 0.0171 Tc 0.0144 Tw 9 0 0 9 38.83 546.689 Tm (of\223cers, following the death of his elder brother, Tsar Alexander I, \ in)Tj 0.0019 Tc -0.0019 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (1825. The Decembrist Uprising was a trauma that no doubt colored the)Tj 0.006 Tc -0.006 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (\223rst years of Nicholas\220s reign. During his years in power, Nichola\ s took)Tj 0.0043 Tc -0.0043 Tw T* (steps to prevent any repetition by building mechanisms of surveillance)Tj 0.0042 Tc -0.0042 Tw T* (and censorship. Most famously, he established the Third Section of His)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0302 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Majesty\220s Chancellery, or Russia\220s \223rst political police, with \ Nicholas)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (himself directly in charge.)Tj 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 149.592 477.839 Tm (24)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.1127 Tw 9 0 0 9 47.83 462.689 Tm (But repression was not the sole instrument that Nicholas used to)Tj 0.002 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (fortify the autocratic state. Under Nicholas, the Russian state took an)Tj 0.0337 Tw T* (active interest not only in quashing dissent and sedition, but also in)Tj 0.0732 Tw T* (positively shaping the values and behavior of its subjects. No group)Tj 0.0043 Tc -0.0043 Tw T* (received more attention in this regard than elite young men, who were)Tj 0.0171 Tc -0.0164 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (seen as both future leaders of Russia\220s expanding civilian bureaucrac\ y)Tj 0.0019 Tc -0.0019 Tw T* (and military forces and as a potentially lethal source of unrest. By ove\ r-)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0047 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (seeing \205 under the threat of punishment \205 the gendering of its fut\ ure)Tj 0.134 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (servitors, the autocracy itself became the main motor behind what)Tj 0.0152 Tc -0.0152 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Norbert Elias, in the western European context, has called the \217civil\ iz-)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.3241 Tw T* (ing process.\220)Tj 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 95.363 345.839 Tm (25)Tj 0.3241 Tw 9 0 0 9 107.933 342.689 Tm (Rather than relinquishing control over the moral)Tj 0.0059 Tw -7.678 -1.333 Td (upbringing of its subjects \205 as was taking place elsewhere in Europe \ \205)Tj 0.0032 Tc -0.0032 Tw T* (the Nicholaevan regime made a concerted effort to inculcate an of\223cia\ l)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw T* (ideal of masculinity among its future servitors.)Tj 0.0033 Tc -0.0092 Tw 1 -1.333 Td (Nicholas himself served as a role model of masculine appearance and)Tj -0.0023 Tc -0.0036 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (behavior. The Tsar, by most accounts, cut a memorable \223gure. Even as \ a)Tj 0.0113 Tc 0.0867 Tw T* (newborn infant he impressed his grandmother, Catherine the Great,)Tj -0.0006 Tc -0.0053 Tw T* (with his extraordinary size and strength. \217He was just over two feet \ tall,\220)Tj -0.0034 Tc -0.0025 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (the Empress reportedly commented, with hands \217only a bit smaller than\ )Tj -0.001 Tc -0.0049 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (my own.\220)Tj -0.0009 Tc 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 78.309 237.839 Tm (26)Tj -0.001 Tc -0.0049 Tw 9 0 0 9 87.545 234.689 Tm (The adult Nicholas was noted for his \217particularly masculine)Tj 0.0113 Tc 0 Tw -5.413 -1.333 Td (beauty.\220)Tj 5.85 0 0 5.85 72.884 225.839 Tm (27)Tj 0.0467 Tw 9 0 0 9 82.839 222.689 Tm (Standing six feet and two or three inches tall, broad-shoul-)Tj 0.0054 Tc -0.0113 Tw -4.89 -1.333 Td (dered, with a trimmed mustache, he was compared to a )Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 0 Tw 26.339 0 Td (bogytyr)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf 0 Tc (,)Tj 0.0055 Tc 5.85 0 0 5.85 307.139 213.839 Tm (28)Tj -0.0113 Tw 9 0 0 9 316.45 210.689 Tm (a leg-)Tj 0.0113 Tc 0.0686 Tw -30.847 -1.333 Td (endary Russian warrior, and remembered by one French traveler, the)Tj 0.0468 Tw T* (Marquis de Custine, as having a \217naturally imposing\220 presence with\ a)Tj 0.1014 Tw T* (\217perfect Grecian pro\223le.\220)Tj 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 144.464 177.839 Tm (29)Tj 0.1014 Tw 9 0 0 9 154.911 174.689 Tm (A young man in the Cadet Corps recalled)Tj 0.0079 Tc -0.0138 Tw -12.898 -1.333 Td (how, on the day that Nicholas visited his school, he got a clear view of\ )Tj 0.0113 Tc 0.0089 Tw T* (\217the manliness of his beautiful face\220 and heard his unforgettable \ voice)Tj 0 Tc -0.0059 Tw T* (with its astonishing power.)Tj 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 152.568 141.839 Tm (30)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.4397 Tw 9 0 0 9 47.83 126.689 Tm (Richard Wortman argues convincingly that around this time)Tj 0.012 Tc -0.012 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (European rulers went from being viewed as untouchable, angelic crea-)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.2442 Tw T* (tures \(like Alexander I\) to \217exemplars of human conduct, modest)Tj 0.0105 Tw T* (virtue, to be admired by their subjects.\220)Tj 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 209.833 93.839 Tm (31)Tj 0.0105 Tw 9 0 0 9 219.582 90.689 Tm (No longer \217raised above the)Tj 0.0279 Tw -20.084 -1.333 Td (ordinary\220 as Alexander I had been, Nicholas appeared before his sub-)Tj -0.0151 Tw T* (jects as a mortal to be emulated. Historians and contemporaries agree)Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 0.0056 Tc 0 Tw 8 0 0 8 284.36 571.424 Tm (Introduction)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf 0 Tc 6.235 0 Td (5)Tj ET endstream endobj 126 0 obj << /Width 49 /Filter /FlateDecode /Height 76 /Length 808 /BitsPerComponent 8 /ColorSpace 8 0 R >> stream HV0 d1P2 (B1c'6G". ?Ժ+ݿny̚43AϚ=AaMWB3 3&.\(QK+ㄙ`diQ#`cu|ǒ 6H/5yw!3mC/&˪b`M+(KPTFn#Q7.Uc8ugSȅУ@[9^h[S#JeFg]*h×*4 'b} Ҥ,H/cHM pGVNor2i b( :[>EP%jGm(NUqqqfm TJ)MB. V“TXʛUʊfZΛ)$,)XYUx,'e w&;6e\݋lܛ4Q~گb endstream endobj 124 0 obj << /Resources << /Font << /T1_1 33 0 R /T1_0 15 0 R >> /ProcSet [/PDF /Text] /ExtGState << /GS0 20 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /CS0 21 0 R >> >> /TrimBox [0.0 0.0 392.59 614.185] /Contents 125 0 R /Parent 1 0 R /Type /Page /Thumb 126 0 R /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 392.59 614.185] /CropBox [0.0000457764 0.0000534058 392.59 614.185] /BleedBox [0.0 0.0 392.59 614.185] >> endobj 129 0 obj << /Length 4718 >> stream BT /CS0 cs 1 scn /GS0 gs /T1_0 1 Tf 0.0058 Tc -0.0058 Tw 9 0 0 9 51.83 546.689 Tm (that Nicholas projected an image of himself as a man with a singleness)Tj 0.0037 Tc -0.0037 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (of purpose and iron will, who was most content when engaged in mili-)Tj 0.0087 Tc -0.0087 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (tary exercises or inspecting his men.)Tj 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 206.259 525.839 Tm (32)Tj -0.0087 Tw 9 0 0 9 215.659 522.689 Tm (The following words, uttered by)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0014 Tw -18.203 -1.333 Td (Nicholas in his admiration of the Prussian army \205 and often repeated)Tj 0.0494 Tw T* (by scholars \205 re\224ect the enduring image of Nicholas as a man of th\ e)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw T* (parade ground:)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0266 Tw 1.333 -2.667 Td (No one [in the Prussian army] gives orders until he has learned to)Tj 0.0801 Tw T* (obey \203 all are subordinated to a single de\223ned purpose, all have)Tj 0.0825 Tw T* (their assignments. That is why I feel so well among those people)Tj 0.0807 Tw T* (and why I will always hold in respect the profession of a soldier. )Tj 0.0093 Tw T* (I look upon all human life in the same way as I look upon service,)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw T* (for each person serves.)Tj 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 159.418 405.839 Tm (33)Tj 0.0171 Tc -0.0039 Tw 9 0 0 9 51.83 378.689 Tm (Nicholas\220s contemporaries con\223rm this portrait of the Tsar. The he\ ad)Tj 0.0026 Tc -0.0026 Tw T* (of the Third Section, Alexander Benkendorf, wrote that \217the sovereign\ \220s)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw T* (relaxation with his troops is his only real pleasure.\220)Tj 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 267.971 357.839 Tm (34)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.1648 Tw 9 0 0 9 60.83 342.689 Tm (The drillmaster, however, was only one side of the persona that)Tj 0.0082 Tc -0.0082 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (Nicholas projected to his subjects. The public presentation of Nicholas)Tj 0.0018 Tc -0.0018 Tw T* (and his family \205 what Wortman has called the \217dynastic scenario\220\ \205 was)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0534 Tw T* (premised on the image of the domestic bliss of the royal family. His)Tj 0.0155 Tc -0.0155 Tw T* (ideology of rule was replete with images of European domesticity; the)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.1025 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Tsar was presented as the paterfamilias, both within his family and)Tj 0.0117 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (before all Russian subjects.)Tj 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 169.793 273.839 Tm (35)Tj 0.0117 Tw 9 0 0 9 179.552 270.689 Tm (Observers noted how Nicholas softened)Tj 0.0791 Tw -14.191 -1.333 Td (in the presence of his family. The Marquis de Custine, for example,)Tj 0.0029 Tc -0.0029 Tw T* (observed that a great deal of Nicholas\220s parade ground harshness disa\ p-)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0497 Tw T* (peared in the company of his wife and children: \217in the heart of the)Tj 0.1111 Tw T* (husband and father\220 there was affability and a glimmer \217of softnes\ s)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw 0 -1.333 TD ([which] temper[ed] the imperious looks of this monarch.\220)Tj 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 295.163 213.839 Tm (36)Tj 0.013 Tc -0.013 Tw 9 0 0 9 60.83 198.689 Tm (The example set by the Tsar, of course, was far from the only means)Tj 0.0015 Tc -0.0015 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (at the disposal of the Russian state for shaping the manners and morals)Tj 0.0107 Tc -0.0107 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (of young men. The government-controlled press offered another pow-)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.1294 Tw T* (erful tool. Until about 1848, when revolution swept across Europe,)Tj 0.0054 Tc -0.0054 Tw T* (there was a relative \224owering of journalistic enterprises in Russia\220\ s cap-)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.1038 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (itals, Moscow and St Petersburg. Alongside the high literary culture)Tj 0.0131 Tc -0.0131 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (nurtured in the pages of the new thick journals,)Tj 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 257.421 129.839 Tm (37)Tj -0.0131 Tw 9 0 0 9 266.874 126.689 Tm (emerged the of\223cial)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.1647 Tw -23.894 -1.333 Td (press. The most widely circulated and popular among the array of)Tj 0.0162 Tc -0.0162 Tw T* (state-sponsored publications were the journal )Tj /T1_1 1 Tf (Biblioteka dlia chteniia)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf 0 Tc 0 Tw 32.833 0 Td (\205)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.021 Tw -32.833 -1.333 Td (comparable to the American )Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 14.075 0 Td (Reader\220s Digest)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 240.002 93.839 Tm (38)Tj 0.021 Tw 9 0 0 9 249.845 90.689 Tm (\205 and the thrice-weekly)Tj 0.0107 Tc -0.0107 Tw -22.002 -1.333 Td (\(later daily\) newspaper )Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 11.105 0 Td (Severnaia pchela)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf (. These publications were spon-)Tj 0.0126 Tc -0.0126 Tw -11.105 -1.333 Td (sored by the government and run by the infamously conservative and)Tj 0 Tc 0 Tw 8 0 0 8 51.83 571.424 Tm (6)Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw 1.446 0 Td (Masculinity, Autocracy, and the Russian University)Tj ET endstream endobj 130 0 obj << /Width 49 /Filter /FlateDecode /Height 76 /Length 768 /BitsPerComponent 8 /ColorSpace 8 0 R >> stream HVK0 aa0taduFU4NNj8@LdSU#b(LW_cs>H{\d-fCh.<,*y0;;XjLlQݜuHq'.yG#Z ;>d y)ܘ1zй(wY{`SZ5F)xfyԇbvc}H>W& +cP5>y&6jz xDt[tëK܄q0Z@Y dyDwş-rAx r0`;\"\wMDXr8M"#!"#M4Q=Rwl˹7̚A@?Yݛ^D!"yaE 1T,eԙK!6Q ^`|Fǿ2jF_K$Suj75fVI 2_^lK;(`1V{;%>,+خw}&3qo )Ge-jR>d}X_1XzN$XLтKfxg|Y>ګ㬔&GEgƞ^vL TݠGsV8ֳa\Qk-mg1;5Ut('kGDc:~i,b("'Ӊxd=YՐͭNay1<֓cirKkb]+GpEը|c2y#ʜ ܕ|z{. endstream endobj 128 0 obj << /Resources << /Font << /T1_1 33 0 R /T1_0 15 0 R >> /ProcSet [/PDF /Text] /ExtGState << /GS0 20 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /CS0 21 0 R >> >> /TrimBox [0.0 0.0 392.59 614.185] /Contents 129 0 R /Parent 1 0 R /Type /Page /Thumb 130 0 R /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 392.59 614.185] /CropBox [0.0000457764 0.0000534058 392.59 614.185] /BleedBox [0.0 0.0 392.59 614.185] >> endobj 133 0 obj << /Length 4347 >> stream BT /CS0 cs 1 scn /GS0 gs /T1_0 1 Tf 0.0171 Tc 0.1107 Tw 9 0 0 9 38.83 546.689 Tm (sycophantic triumvirate of Nicholas Grech, Faddei V. Bulgarin, and)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Osip Senkovskii, each of whom had strong ties to the regime.)Tj 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 298.255 537.839 Tm (39)Tj 0.0226 Tc -0.0113 Tw 9 0 0 9 47.83 522.689 Tm (The essays, stories, and various columns contained in these widely)Tj 0.0285 Tc 0.4529 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (circulated publications mimicked the government\220s ideological)Tj 0.0721 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (emphasis on Orthodoxy, autocracy, and nationality \()Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 0 Tw 26.695 0 Td (narodnost\220)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf 0.072 Tw 4.874 0 Td (\) in)Tj 0.0239 Tc -0.0126 Tw -31.569 -1.333 Td (the form of simple, straightforward prescriptive morality tales, often)Tj 0.0285 Tc 0.1303 Tw T* (focused on how to cultivate proper social and gender roles. From)Tj 0.1237 Tw T* (stories about the trials and tribulations of marriage, romance and)Tj 0.0151 Tc -0.0038 Tw T* (professional life, to advice columns on how to eat, dress, and behave,)Tj 0.0286 Tc 0.2441 Tw T* (consumers of these publications were inundated with images of)Tj 0.0171 Tc -0.0058 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (of\223cial values and respectable etiquette.)Tj 0.0137 Tw 1 -1.333 Td (The daily morals columns, in particular, supplied lessons in proper)Tj 0.0075 Tc -0.0075 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (and improper behavior, from the minutiae of dress to prescriptions for)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.4385 Tw T* (service to the Fatherland. The proper male citizen/subject was)Tj 0.0124 Tc -0.0124 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (instructed to be modest in his tastes and loyal to the Fatherland, God,)Tj 0.0128 Tc -0.0128 Tw T* (and his fellow man. According to one such column appearing in 1827)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0885 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (entitled \217Life,\220 a mature man must be \217a man, a citizen. He mus\ t be)Tj 0.1318 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (useful to mankind, useful to the Fatherland. He must work for the)Tj 0.0108 Tc -0.0108 Tw T* (general good.\220)Tj 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 99.194 333.839 Tm (40)Tj -0.0108 Tw 9 0 0 9 108.62 330.689 Tm (Modesty \205 \220a priceless virtue\220 and \217a tender movement)Tj 0.0028 Tc -0.0028 Tw -7.754 -1.333 Td (of the soul\220 \205 emerged in many of these columns as an essential qu\ ality)Tj 0.0171 Tc -0.0079 Tw T* (for men, who were constantly tempted to behave with arrogance and)Tj 0 Tw T* (pride.)Tj 5.85 0 0 5.85 63.943 297.839 Tm (41)Tj 0.325 Tw 9 0 0 9 76.522 294.689 Tm (The writers regularly instructed men on how to behave)Tj 0.0079 Tc -0.0079 Tw -4.188 -1.333 Td (respectably and how to be good sons, fathers, and husbands, as well as)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw T* (obedient Russians.)Tj 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 117.313 273.839 Tm (42)Tj 0.0092 Tc -0.0092 Tw 9 0 0 9 47.83 258.689 Tm (In many instances, these lessons came in the form of individual role)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0148 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (models. In an 1826 cautionary tale entitled \217Lesson for Braggarts and\ )Tj 0.2116 Tw T* (Empty-headed Men,\220 the arrogant, lorgnette-wearing Khariton was)Tj 0.0761 Tw T* (taught a harsh lesson by his aging uncle, Arkhipov Faddeevich.)Tj 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 319.275 225.839 Tm (43)Tj 9 0 0 9 329.614 222.689 Tm (In)Tj 0.1501 Tw -32.309 -1.333 Td (order to receive his family inheritance, Khariton had to drastically)Tj 0.0059 Tc -0.0059 Tw T* (reform his behavior and transform himself into a patriotic, upstanding)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.2854 Tw T* (Russian, much like his respectable and humble uncle. Unless he)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw T* (heeded the following advice, Khariton would \223nd himself penniless:)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.3749 Tw 1.333 -2.667 Td (He must behave well and refrain from the braggardliness of)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw T* (Frenchi\223ed dandies. )Tj -0.0066 Tc -0.005 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (He must prove that he soulfully and passionately loves his Fatherland)Tj -0.0059 Tc -0.0057 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (and that he will serve his sovereign truly and zealously.)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw T* (He must ful\223ll all of the responsibilities of an honest man of faith.\ )Tj 0 -1.333 TD (He must not run from obligations.)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.073 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (He must respect his studies of science and Russian philosophy so)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw T* (that he can become a useful bureaucrat. )Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 0 Tw 8 0 0 8 284.36 571.424 Tm (Introduction)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf 0 Tc 6.235 0 Td (7)Tj ET endstream endobj 134 0 obj << /Width 49 /Filter /FlateDecode /Height 76 /Length 785 /BitsPerComponent 8 /ColorSpace 8 0 R >> stream HV˕0 D1Pn(f}B1{s; H[%E^rJh$`h3;"^U]5{'ŲxS:V\Sڼ\<=H`v u|ρ Gg^kƿV8҉ W`ykS/8}ζ7!|qK*=8BY(gzc."/%�pfek&G<<2nW;}3@W<5T|~ w*1Jbp-]$6IcĀoN 񅝠_`+K1Ýf*byX=ؤjBcb]d1?G\JAA`#3,vFQ7fl ;5Z0WrKx2(52("IjekL;D.xә#I)C[-W6N+ۉ"uQeq.>Ea62>D #=;^)r7Rˬrm`ѧ&"9Q{R2|AJHNf0 AbSt {åNL~1Hޠy|y+iRVk.xՎ} mwyax~B-ېU?M^Q%ġ3ϣ*u( W~bKB_QAGm(xvQoS{[g&UMg)\6ϑϺLySC{(b`SK}6I3$j]~ -29 endstream endobj 132 0 obj << /Resources << /Font << /T1_1 33 0 R /T1_0 15 0 R >> /ProcSet [/PDF /Text] /ExtGState << /GS0 20 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /CS0 21 0 R >> >> /TrimBox [0.0 0.0 392.59 614.185] /Contents 133 0 R /Parent 1 0 R /Type /Page /Thumb 134 0 R /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 392.59 614.185] /CropBox [0.0000457764 0.0000534058 392.59 614.185] /BleedBox [0.0 0.0 392.59 614.185] >> endobj 137 0 obj << /Length 4566 >> stream BT /CS0 cs 1 scn /GS0 gs /T1_0 1 Tf 0.0171 Tc 0.1982 Tw 9 0 0 9 63.83 546.689 Tm (He must change his name on his calling card from the French)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (spelling back to the Russian.)Tj 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 184.059 537.839 Tm (44)Tj 0.0004 Tc -0.0004 Tw 9 0 0 9 51.83 510.689 Tm (He had, in essence, to shed his super\223cial European ways and become a\ )Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw T* (modest, Russian man.)Tj -0.0149 Tw 1 -1.333 Td (The regrettable Khariton was not alone. Readers could also delight in)Tj 0.2435 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (the stories of more positive \205 more masculine \205 role models. Ivan)Tj 0.0801 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Stepanovich was one such man. During his \223ctitious lifetime, he had)Tj -0.0116 Tc 0 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (undergone military training, traveled to France to \223ght, and after th\ e war)Tj 0.0056 Tc 0.1386 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (returned home to the provinces, where his parents gladly welcomed)Tj -0.0055 Tc -0.0061 Tw T* (him. Soon after his return, he married well \(his wife was in possession\ of)Tj 0.0039 Tc -0.0155 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (a substantial dowry\) and ultimately fathered a number of children. The)Tj 0.003 Tc -0.0146 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (story depicted how, during his name day celebration, he and his family)Tj -0.0106 Tc -0.001 Tw T* (enjoyed simple provincial hospitality and customs; they ate Russian food\ )Tj -0.0112 Tc -0.0004 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (and sat around the table for hours relaxing.)Tj 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 229.704 381.839 Tm (45)Tj -0.0004 Tw 9 0 0 9 238.769 378.689 Tm (Back in his native Russia he)Tj -0.0036 Tc -0.008 Tw -20.771 -1.333 Td (felt at home and achieved the status of provider and head of household,)Tj 0.0056 Tc 0.1533 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (all the while ful\223lling his duty to the state. Loyalty, simplicity, a\ nd)Tj -0.0059 Tc -0.0057 Tw T* (modesty all constituted expressions of manliness in the of\223cial press\ .)Tj 0.0077 Tc -0.0136 Tw 1 -1.333 Td (Another way in which Nicholas and his of\223cials attempted to imple-)Tj 0.0113 Tc 0.028 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (ment autocratic priorities and create ideal servitors was by expanding)Tj 0.0055 Tw T* (the institutional base of the Empire\220s military schools, and overseei\ ng)Tj 0.0049 Tc -0.0108 Tw T* (the moral development of the regime\220s future military leaders. Of all\ of)Tj 0.0113 Tc 0.0079 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Russia\220s military training institutions, the Cadet Corps was the larg\ est)Tj -0.0039 Tc -0.002 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (and increasingly the most desirable among members of the elite to train)Tj -0.0031 Tc -0.0028 Tw T* (the Empire\220s future of\223cers.)Tj 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 166.414 261.839 Tm (46)Tj -0.0028 Tw 9 0 0 9 175.625 258.689 Tm (Ranging in age from ten to 18, cadets gen-)Tj 0.0014 Tc -0.0073 Tw -13.755 -1.333 Td (erally studied for four years and received a broad Enlightenment educa-)Tj 0.0113 Tc 0.0953 Tw T* (tion combined with intensive military training. Nicholas himself, in)Tj 0.0931 Tw T* (1838, helped to rewrite the military statutes that would regulate the)Tj 0.0821 Tw T* (minds, morals, and bodies of the Empire\220s future elite military servi\ -)Tj 0 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (tors.)Tj 5.85 0 0 5.85 70.709 201.839 Tm (47)Tj 0.2084 Tw 9 0 0 9 82.12 198.689 Tm (The codes articulated the detailed procedures governing the)Tj 0.0413 Tw -3.366 -1.333 Td (everyday lives of Russia\220s cadets, from the wearing of mustaches \205\ no)Tj 0.0866 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (small order \205 to the temperature in their bedrooms. Of\223cial values\ \205)Tj -0.0012 Tc -0.0047 Tw T* (such as mental and physical strength and moral and religious discipline)Tj 0.0113 Tc 0.1905 Tw T* (\205 were fostered in the classroom, on the training \223eld, and in the\ )Tj 0 Tc 0 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (dormitory.)Tj 0.0151 Tc -0.0066 Tw 1 -1.333 Td (Nicholas was especially involved with the young men in the Corps.)Tj 0.0257 Tc 0.0811 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (The cadets were, as one memoirist put it, \217the favorite offspring of)Tj 0.0858 Tw T* (Tsar Nicholas.\220)Tj 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 117.549 105.839 Tm (48)Tj 0.0858 Tw 9 0 0 9 128.153 102.689 Tm (Not only did the Tsar guarantee the Corps skilled)Tj 0.0154 Tc -0.0069 Tw -8.48 -1.333 Td (teachers of military affairs and humanistic \223elds by offering excelle\ nt)Tj 0.0257 Tc 0.2346 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (salaries and other advantages, but he also frequently visited the)Tj 0.1204 Tw T* (cadets themselves. He appointed his brother, Grand Duke Mikhail)Tj 0 Tc 0 Tw 8 0 0 8 51.83 571.424 Tm (8)Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw 1.446 0 Td (Masculinity, Autocracy, and the Russian University)Tj ET endstream endobj 138 0 obj << /Width 49 /Filter /FlateDecode /Height 76 /Length 801 /BitsPerComponent 8 /ColorSpace 8 0 R >> stream HV0 D1P2 8B1.H,7y'Dr,z6Ïztgh{7An 8=D%al |sI%sj L̶x,Ά S:W~x^؋[g`IÒpfΛ!^g";b),j F+"`aBqM,gNjQ߁p|bT(y~Snc;.SU.#e J\s`WߋM5@^Z>Ie#kcX|Ͼ7qD7Kc\1_h%nMxJ6fHŞdQ.61%#³(Ny+w?uψ =/̋qw`R8j~)hczFxiX>Ym޵`LzC*ϐT?fmE1H2);&4]K#EM^@:9Z1+^c87γ_}Yr%8}X{)iRQqmH+?bsSb ,;9l xVUC}hLʸؤK9*],}t'5egwvZGq X0Or@n][^7odc0Q'F~uX'.{d&E89 m3IV\Q'X-1yW7oPm27~߾ d endstream endobj 136 0 obj << /Resources << /Font << /T1_1 33 0 R /T1_0 15 0 R >> /ProcSet [/PDF /Text] /ExtGState << /GS0 20 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /CS0 21 0 R >> >> /TrimBox [0.0 0.0 392.59 614.185] /Contents 137 0 R /Parent 1 0 R /Type /Page /Thumb 138 0 R /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 392.59 614.185] /CropBox [0.0000457764 0.0000534058 392.59 614.185] /BleedBox [0.0 0.0 392.59 614.185] >> endobj 141 0 obj << /Length 4248 >> stream BT /CS0 cs 1 scn /GS0 gs /T1_0 1 Tf 0.0161 Tc -0.0076 Tw 9 0 0 9 38.83 546.689 Tm (Pavlovich, to lead the Corps and the Tsar served as father and inspec-)Tj 0.0146 Tc -0.0061 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (tor to these of\223cers in training. At the graduation ceremony of one o\ f)Tj 0.0103 Tc -0.0018 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (the Empire\220s most prestigious military schools, Tsar Nicholas gathere\ d)Tj 0.0257 Tc 0.0682 Tw T* (a select group and congratulated them on becoming of\223cers in the)Tj 0.022 Tc -0.0136 Tw T* (Imperial army. One of the young men was named Romanov, like the)Tj 0.016 Tc -0.0075 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Tsar himself. Nicholas lightheartedly inquired of the young graduate:)Tj 0.0188 Tc -0.0103 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (\217Are you my relation?\220 The cadet replied \217Yes, exactly, your Gr\ eatness)Tj 0.0257 Tc 0.0308 Tw T* (\203 you are the Father of Russia and I am her son.\220 Pleased, Nichola\ s)Tj 0.112 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (smiled and kissed the cadet Romanov: \217Here you are \205 a kiss from)Tj 0.0615 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (your grandpa.\220)Tj 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 103.862 441.839 Tm (49)Tj 0.0615 Tw 9 0 0 9 114.248 438.689 Tm (The cadets were encouraged by Nicholas, his wife,)Tj 0.1988 Tw -8.38 -1.333 Td (brother, and sons to see themselves \217as members of the imperial)Tj 0 Tw T* (family.\220)Tj 5.85 0 0 5.85 72.566 417.839 Tm (50)Tj 0.0575 Tw 9 0 0 9 82.915 414.689 Tm (Nicholas served \205 as he had for university students \205 as a)Tj 0.0142 Tc -0.0057 Tw -4.898 -1.333 Td (role model, inspector, and father \223gure for these of\223cers in train\ ing.)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0263 Tw 1 -1.333 Td (Just as the Cadet Corps was central to the shaping of Russia\220s mili-)Tj 0.0202 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (tary elite, so was the university important for the shaping of Russia\220\ s)Tj 0.0066 Tw T* (civilian elite. In Nicholaevan society educational institutions of both)Tj 0.0557 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (varieties were meant to arm young men with the proper morals and)Tj 0.1598 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (manners to carry with them after graduation. Whether training to)Tj 0.0021 Tc -0.0021 Tw T* (command an army or teach in a gymnasium, cadets and university stu-)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0081 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (dents, imbued with of\223cial values, were required to spread autocratic\ )Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (ideology into the many corners of the Empire. )Tj 0.0032 Tc -0.0091 Tw 1 -1.333 Td (At a time when the Russian state bureaucracy had a growing need for)Tj 0.0007 Tc -0.0066 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (educated civil servants, Nicholas I presided over a signi\223cant expans\ ion)Tj 0.0113 Tc 0.0153 Tw T* (in the number of university students. At the same time, the Tsar inte-)Tj -0.0045 Tc -0.0014 Tw T* (grated the universities into the structures of the autocratic state, cur\ bing)Tj -0.0046 Tc 0 -1.333 TD (the relative autonomy that they had enjoyed under his predecessor. The)Tj 0.0113 Tc -0.0094 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Nicholaevan university, in this way, became an instrument of govern-)Tj 0.0036 Tc T* (ment policy, the key function of which was to train future government)Tj 0.0113 Tc 0.0295 Tw T* (administrators. This training would consist not only of formal educa-)Tj 0.1836 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (tion, but also of imbuing students with the personal qualities that)Tj 0.0061 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (would make them model servants of the Tsar. To ensure that students)Tj 0.0839 Tw T* (learned these qualities, universities published disciplinary codes that)Tj 0.0028 Tc -0.0087 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (dictated to students the details of their everyday lives and hired inspe\ c-)Tj -0.0038 Tc -0.0021 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (tors charged with enforcing the codes and punishing violators. Through)Tj 0.0081 Tc -0.014 Tw T* (these mechanisms, the universities attempted to turn unruly boys into)Tj 0 Tc -0.0059 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (orderly, obedient men.)Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 0.0058 Tc -0.0058 Tw 10 0 0 10 38.83 99.689 Tm (State and society in Nicholaevan Russia)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf -0.0138 Tc -0.003 Tw 9 0 0 9 38.83 78.689 Tm (For many years, historians of Russia tended to see the Nicholaevan perio\ d)Tj 0.0003 Tc -0.0171 Tw T* (in stark terms, dominated by a dialectic of repression and rebellion. Th\ e)Tj /T1_2 1 Tf 0.0056 Tc 0 Tw 8 0 0 8 284.36 571.424 Tm (Introduction)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf 0 Tc 6.235 0 Td (9)Tj ET endstream endobj 142 0 obj << /Width 49 /Filter /FlateDecode /Height 76 /Length 776 /BitsPerComponent 8 /ColorSpace 8 0 R >> stream HV˱0 d1Pn(&:ws;.H"grI#Xr'Z53`76Mf ~)Iq[ oAnx%$RQ9bm‰XEqyB3خ9}^7$@,W<>0\x &F-ɞ1@HvA~!/g JyEΉϑ~VhGd<8'{3gwԛ|n.Bȡ^ۣzl0z Y?ѤMTvU D?|CE0@C!](=ա9J$(_[7ڇ)QTYӪjuwVȮNdp>݆yjw!6~_\s1@»A`fWz\D;EeܧޝGj׌U?'< QMRq{){ߤmmJbp endstream endobj 140 0 obj << /Resources << /Font << /T1_2 33 0 R /T1_1 38 0 R /T1_0 15 0 R >> /ProcSet [/PDF /Text] /ExtGState << /GS0 20 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /CS0 21 0 R >> >> /TrimBox [0.0 0.0 392.59 614.185] /Contents 141 0 R /Parent 1 0 R /Type /Page /Thumb 142 0 R /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 392.59 614.185] /CropBox [0.0000457764 0.0000534058 392.59 614.185] /BleedBox [0.0 0.0 392.59 614.185] >> endobj 1 0 obj << /Kids [3 0 R 14 0 R 28 0 R 32 0 R 47 0 R 77 0 R 81 0 R 85 0 R 89 0 R 93 0 R 97 0 R 101 0 R 112 0 R 116 0 R 120 0 R 124 0 R 128 0 R 132 0 R 136 0 R 140 0 R] /Type /Pages /Count 20 >> endobj 143 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 1 0 R >> endobj 144 0 obj << /ModDate (D:20170719005846+02'00') /CreationDate (D:20170719005846+02'00') /Creator (pdftk 2.01 - www.pdftk.com) /Producer (itext-paulo-155 \(itextpdf.sf.net-lowagie.com\)) >> endobj xref 0 145 0000000000 65535 f 0000335887 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000071260 00000 n 0000005443 00000 n 0000000015 00000 n 0000068520 00000 n 0000069096 00000 n 0000069048 00000 n 0000068637 00000 n 0000071070 00000 n 0000069743 00000 n 0000071172 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000085637 00000 n 0000080383 00000 n 0000071563 00000 n 0000072125 00000 n 0000079745 00000 n 0000072820 00000 n 0000081400 00000 n 0000085111 00000 n 0000084139 00000 n 0000081460 00000 n 0000084175 00000 n 0000085163 00000 n 0000085425 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000086218 00000 n 0000086001 00000 n 0000086054 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000104558 00000 n 0000094762 00000 n 0000086473 00000 n 0000086923 00000 n 0000094230 00000 n 0000087589 00000 n 0000102084 00000 n 0000095757 00000 n 0000096097 00000 n 0000101656 00000 n 0000096747 00000 n 0000102740 00000 n 0000103642 00000 n 0000104229 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000123643 00000 n 0000108691 00000 n 0000104996 00000 n 0000105206 00000 n 0000108306 00000 n 0000105564 00000 n 0000110303 00000 n 0000109250 00000 n 0000109315 00000 n 0000110073 00000 n 0000109724 00000 n 0000116592 00000 n 0000110483 00000 n 0000110892 00000 n 0000116105 00000 n 0000111540 00000 n 0000118008 00000 n 0000117426 00000 n 0000117641 00000 n 0000119081 00000 n 0000118595 00000 n 0000118756 00000 n 0000119484 00000 n 0000119925 00000 n 0000120746 00000 n 0000119992 00000 n 0000120028 00000 n 0000120797 00000 n 0000122846 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000124507 00000 n 0000124131 00000 n 0000124305 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000125088 00000 n 0000124871 00000 n 0000124924 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000127104 00000 n 0000125343 00000 n 0000126690 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000127698 00000 n 0000127481 00000 n 0000127534 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000133087 00000 n 0000127953 00000 n 0000132177 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000137035 00000 n 0000133464 00000 n 0000136339 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000287449 00000 n 0000197867 00000 n 0000191135 00000 n 0000137412 00000 n 0000282448 00000 n 0000271935 00000 n 0000198340 00000 n 0000282940 00000 n 0000282983 00000 n 0000286597 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000293467 00000 n 0000287857 00000 n 0000292539 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000299895 00000 n 0000293860 00000 n 0000298922 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000305811 00000 n 0000300275 00000 n 0000304884 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000312193 00000 n 0000306204 00000 n 0000311249 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000318252 00000 n 0000312573 00000 n 0000317348 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000323957 00000 n 0000318632 00000 n 0000323036 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000329897 00000 n 0000324337 00000 n 0000328960 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000335494 00000 n 0000330277 00000 n 0000334582 00000 n 0000336089 00000 n 0000336142 00000 n trailer << /Info 144 0 R /ID [<48e45995fe89677e30a2180e25c206e0>] /Root 143 0 R /Size 145 >> startxref 336339 %%EOF