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Ecological responses to environmental stresses by A. D. Bradshaw, T. McNeilly (auth.), J. Rozema, J. A. C.

By A. D. Bradshaw, T. McNeilly (auth.), J. Rozema, J. A. C. Verkleij (eds.)

September 1987, the school Biology of the Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam venerated the truth that Prof. Dr. Wilfried Hans Otto Ernst were lively as a scientist for 25 years. this era of 25 years of clinical study all started on the Institut flir Angewandte Botanik (Institute of utilized Botany) of the collage of Munster, FRG. In 1965 he accomplished his Ph. D. thesis, entitled "Untersuchungen der Schwermetallpflanzengesellschaften Mitteleuropas unter Einschluss der Alpen. " He used to be appointed complete Professor on the division of Ecology of the Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam in 1973. at the social gathering of his twenty fifth anniversary as a scientist, a promise used to be made, although in covert phrases, which lets now not redeem at the moment. The promise held to provide Prof. Ernst a booklet, within which his former and current staffmembers, Ph. D. scholars and colle a while may still write a evaluation approximately their specialism relating a principal topic. Now, first and foremost of 1990 we think of the chapters of "Ecological Responses to Environmental Stresses" to be accomplished. The publication displays the wide variety of study ways that has been initiated and arranged by way of Wilfried Ernst. The editors wish to have attained the first goal of the creation of the booklet of acquaintances, that's to assemble correct papers of staff-members and associates of Wilfried Ernst. The identify of the publication "Ecological Responses to Environmental Stresses" covers the vast majority of the chapters included.

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R. ) CHAPTER 3 Free radicals and heavy metal tolerance C. H. R. DE VOS & H. SCHAT Abstract. There are many possible ways in which heavy metals can affect the generation and the metabolization of cellular radical species. Due to a lack of in vivo studies, it is difficult to assess the significance of oxidative stress in metal toxicity in higher plants. Except for copper toxicity, which is associated with peroxidation of the root cell membranes, there are no indications that metal toxicity would primarily rely on a disturbance of the cellular radical balance.

It may be as well reduced by ascorbate, which leads to the recovery of ArOH: ArO· + AH- + H+ ~ ArOH + AH· (16) The ascorbyl radical can be reduced by AH· -reductase (semidehydroascorbate-reductase): (12) The resulting de hydro ascorbate (A) is reduced by dehydro ascorbate reductase, which uses glutathione as a reducing substrate: A + 2GSH~ AH- + H+ + GSSG (13) The oxidized glutathione (GSSG) is subsequently reduced by glutathione reductase: GSSG + NADPH + H+ ~ 2 GSH + NADP+ (14) Plant cells contain a number of other enzymes with peroxidase activity and a rather non-specific substrate-preference (Halliwell & Gutteridge 1985); their role in H 2 0z breakdown in vivo is uncertain.

Baker, A. J. , 1978. Metal tolerance. New Phytol. 80: 635642. Baker, A. J. , Grant, C. , Martin, M. , Shaw, S. C. , 1986. Induction and loss of cadmium tolerance in Holcus lanatus L. and other grasses. New Phytol. 102: 575-587. Bradshaw, A. , McNeilly, T. & Gregory, R. P. , 1965. Industrialization, evolution and the development of heavy metal tolerance in plants. pp. 327-344. T. W. M. ), Ecology and the Industrial Society, The British Ecol. Soc. Sym. No 5. Blackwell, Oxford. , 1963. Genetisch-physiologische Untersuchungen iiber die zinkvertraglichkeit von Silene inflata Sm.

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