By Jennifer Rietbergen-McCracken, Hussein Abaza
There's now key empirical facts of the ability of monetary tools in dealing with the surroundings. This quantity, the significant other to Environmental Valuation, provides the result of a three-year collaborative attempt related to examine associations in Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin the United States, coordinated through the United international locations atmosphere Programme (UNEP).Authoritative case reports exhibit the variety of environmental difficulties to which numerous fiscal tools may be utilized - air and water toxins, packaging, deforestation, over-grazing, flora and fauna. in addition they express what's wanted for them to paintings effectively and the pitfalls to prevent in introducing them, delivering important suggestions for destiny purposes. Written to be available to non-economists, this ebook deals unrivalled resource fabric for college students and educational economists in addition to for execs operating with monetary instruments.Published in organization with the United international locations setting Programme
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Additional resources for Economic Instruments for Environmental Management: A Worldwide Compendium of Case Studies
Secondly, high water charges provide incentives for water-harves ting and watersaving practices and encourage reductions in the substantial losses in existing reticulation systems (where water loss can be as high as 20 per cent of the water volume in the system). There has been no assessment of the extent to which such water-economizing measures have been done in practice. Higher charges have undoubtedly contributed towards a greater degree of cost recovery within the water sector, but subsidies still remain high.
The low consumption figure is also determined by other, possibly more important, factors such as: income inequality and the prevalence of low incomes; for example, daily water consumption in urban low income areas ranges from 28 t o 65 litres per person compared with 346 to 382 litres in urban high income areas. In rural areas, the average per capita consumption in houses with running water is ten times the per capita consumption in households that depend on village standpipes. economic structure: the absence of irrigation and the lack of a large u manufacturing base has kept commercial water consumption .
The same institutions are responsible for collecting the revenues. Water charges are annually reviewed. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES No distinction is made between productive and consumptive use. Therefore although the rates are incremental, there is no added incentive for companies t o reduce water consumption, because they cannot escape the highest tariff band. I n low-income areas, standpipes are the main source of water. I n villages, standpipe water consumption is free; in urban areas a flat monthly service rate is charged for basic government services, including water supply.