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Atomic Nuclear Physics

Elementary Medical Biophysics by G. G. Járos and B. J. Meyer (Auth.)

By G. G. Járos and B. J. Meyer (Auth.)

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Quantum optics: quantum theories of spontaneous emission

The aim of this text is to study spontaneous emission from a number of diversified viewpoints, even though a wide a part of it will likely be dedicated to the quantum statistical theories of spontaneous emission that have been constructed lately, and to discussing the interrelations between various techniques.

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2. *) 11 b) —ΜΗΗΨ— c) — | i |i FIG. 2 Schematic representation of (a) a single cell — the longer vertical line indicates the positive pole of the cell; (b) and (c) cells connected in series to form a battery. A battery with cells which can be recharged after they have stopped producing electromotive force, is called an accumulator. A good example of an accumulator is the battery of a car. During the charging process, a current is sent through the battery in the opposite direction to normal flow.

If an electron frees itself it becomes a free electron and the atom becomes a positive ion. It is these free electrons that make the flow of electricity possible. Copper possesses many free electrons, and is therefore a good conductor of electricity. Materials with few free electrons are bad conductors and are called insulators. There is also an intermediary group of materials called semi-conductors. These play an important role in electronics. Metals are good conductors of electricity, but good conductors also vary in their number of free electrons.

If ordinary table salt (NaCl) is dissolved in water, it dissociates as follows: NaCl ±^ Na+ + CIAs in the case of pure water, only a fraction of the NaCl ionises before equilibrium is reached, but the fraction in this instance is much higher than in the case of water and therefore a solution of NaCl is a much better conductor of electricity than is pure water. Movement of ions in liquids An electromotive force is necessary to make ions move in a certain direction. The electromotive force (tension or potential difference) can be created in the liquid by producing a relative electron surplus at one point and a relative electron deficiency at another.

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