By Ulf Sonesson, Johanna Berlin, Friederike Ziegler
Lifestyles cycle review (LCA) of creation and processing within the meals is a crucial instrument for making improvements to sustainability. Environmental evaluation and administration within the meals stories the benefits, demanding situations and varied functions of LCA and comparable equipment for environmental overview, in addition to key facets of environmental administration during this area. half one discusses the environmental impression of nutrients creation and processing, addressing matters reminiscent of nutrient administration and water potency in agriculture. Chapters partly conceal LCA method and demanding situations, with chapters targeting assorted foodstuff sectors comparable to crop creation, farm animals and aquaculture. half 3 addresses the purposes of LCA and comparable ways within the foodstuff undefined, with chapters overlaying combining LCA with monetary instruments, ecodesign of foodstuff items and foot printing equipment of evaluation, between different themes. the ultimate a part of the booklet concentrates on environmental administration within the meals undefined, together with contributions on education, eco-labeling and setting up administration platforms. With its foreign group of editors and individuals, Environmental overview and administration within the nutrition is a vital reference for somebody considering environmental administration within the meals undefined, and for people with an instructional curiosity in sustainable nutrition creation.
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Extra resources for Environmental Assessment and Management in the Food Industry: Life Cycle Assessment and Related Approaches (Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition)
Due to the complex and interlinked characteristics of food production’s nitrogen problem, it would be much more rational to work holistically with the management of nitrogen in the whole production chain, especially in the more complex life cycle of animal products where the nitrogen efficiency is generally low today, on a global level estimated slightly over 10% with great variation. For example, global N efficiency in pig production is estimated at around 20% (van der Hoek, 1998). Generally, pork and poultry production have higher N efficiency than ruminant production, but the ongoing development of monogastric animal production into landless or ‘industrial’ farming systems makes it very difficult to utilise the gained N efficiency in animal production in other parts of the production life cycle.
1996), which is equivalent to an average of 8536 m3 ha–1 or 854 mm and is in line with the 834 mm y–1 estimated by Rockström and colleagues (1999). The current arable land of 1402 million hectares therefore receives approximately 11 970 km3 of rainfall, which is similar to the value of 11 600 km3 y–1 stated by Oki and Kanae (2006). We have developed an approach to estimate current and future water use in agriculture, based on food production statistics. Goudriaan and colleagues (2001) show cereal crops to account for 60% of global carbon fixation in agriculture, followed at a far distance by oil crops (including nuts) and sugar crops, with 9% each.
Water that could be available to the crop, especially rainwater, can leave the field beyond the reach of plant roots through run-off, deep infiltration (drainage) and seepage (horizontal underground soil water movement). Water engineering measures such as contour ridges or other constructions to prevent run-off and increase water storage (on various scales), lining of canals, and installation of pipes are feasible options to increase water availability to the crop. As a result of other limiting or reducing factors, crop yields can dramatically vary at similar rainwater levels, such as has been expounded by the findings of French and Schultz (1984a,b) for Mediterranean-type climates.