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Environmental Economics

Environmental Health and Child Survival: Epidemiology, by World Bank

By World Bank

Every year, hundreds of thousands of kids in constructing international locations fall ill and die from illnesses brought on by polluted air, infected water and soil, and negative hygiene habit. Repeated infectious additionally give a contribution to malnutrition in little ones, and therefore affects destiny studying and productiveness. This publication analyzes the linkages among malnutrition and environmental health and wellbeing, and assesses the load of affliction on little ones, and its monetary expenditures.

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However, evidence also shows that the burden of infections, in turn, often constrains the effectiveness of these supplementation programs. Likely, this effect is caused by malabsorption of key antimicrobial drugs, resulting in the emergence of drug resistance in impoverished areas (Guerrant, Lima, and Davidson 2000). Research has revealed that infectious diseases, such as diarrhea and respiratory infections, and intestinal worm burdens may modify the growth response to vitamin A supplementation (Hadi and others 1999; West 2003).

The rotavirus vaccine has shown promise but still faces several technical hurdles before it can be used widely against diarrheal disease in developing countries (Banerjee and others 2006; Thapar and Sanderson 2004). Also important, rotavirus—unlike other intestinal pathogens—apparently is not strongly related to the lack of clean water, sanitation, and appropriate hygiene (Thapar and Sanderson 2004), perhaps because a low number of viruses is needed to infect an individual and because the virus tends to survive outside a host a long time—that is, it is difficult to “wash away” (Eisenberg and others 2006).

With growing demands for water, governments in developing countries are making some progress in extending coverage to improved water supply2 with large-scale water supply projects, especially in urban areas. From a health perspective, water quantity is generally more important than water quality, because increased quantities of water promote good hygiene and can prevent fecal-oral transmission by a number of different routes; increased quantities of water also reduce skin and eye infections (Boeston, Kolsky, and Hunt (c) The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank 40 ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND CHILD SURVIVAL 2007).

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