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Environmental Natural Resources Law

Environmental justice analysis : theories, methods, and by Feng Liu

By Feng Liu

content material: bankruptcy 1 Environmental Justice, fairness, and regulations --
1.1 Environmental Justice stream 1 --
1.2 Environmental Justice rules five --
1.3 Environmental Justice research 10 --
bankruptcy 2 Theories and Hypotheses --
2.1 Theories of Justice and fairness 19 --
2.1.1 Utilitarianism 20 --
2.1.2 Contractarianism and Egalitarianism 22 --
2.1.3 Libertarianism 23 --
2.1.4 Which thought? 24 --
2.2 financial idea and placement concept 26 --
2.2.1 Externality and Public items 27 --
2.2.2 Welfare Economics 28 --
2.2.3 Residential situation concept 30 --
2.2.4 commercial situation concept 33 --
2.3 Theories of chance 34 --
2.3.1 Psychometric thought 35 --
2.3.2 anticipated application idea 36 --
2.3.3 Cultural idea 36 --
2.3.4 Sociological conception 37 --
2.4 Theories of local switch 37 --
2.4.1 Classical Invasion-Succession version 38 --
2.4.2 local Life-Cycle version 39 --
2.4.3 Push-Pull version forty --
2.4.4 Institutional thought of local swap forty-one --
bankruptcy three method and Analytical Framework for Environmental Justice and fairness research --
3.1 Inquiry and Environmental Justice research forty five --
3.1.1 Positivism and Participatory learn forty five --
3.1.2 clinical Reasoning forty seven --
3.1.3 Validity forty seven --
3.1.4 Causality fifty one --
3.2 Methodological matters in Environmental Justice learn fifty two --
3.3 built-in Analytical Framework fifty five --
bankruptcy four Measuring Environmental and Human affects --
4.1 Environmental and Human affects: suggestions and approaches sixty one --
4.2 Modeling and Simulating Environmental dangers sixty five --
4.2.1 Modeling publicity sixty six --
4.2.1.1 Emission types sixty seven --
4.2.1.2 Dispersion types sixty nine --
4.2.1.3 Time-Activity styles and publicity types seventy one --
4.2.2 Modeling Dose-Response seventy two --
4.3 Measuring and Modeling monetary affects seventy five --
4.3.1 Contingent Valuation strategy seventy five --
4.3.2 Hedonic fee procedure seventy six --
4.4 Measuring Environmental and Human affects for Environmental Justice research eighty one --
4.5 Critique and reaction of a Risk-Based method of fairness research 86 --
bankruptcy five Quantifying and Projecting inhabitants Distribution --
5.1 Census ninety three --
5.2 inhabitants Measurements: who's deprived? ninety five --
5.2.1 Race and Ethnicity ninety six --
5.2.2 source of revenue ninety nine --
5.2.3 hugely vulnerable of uncovered Subpopulations 104 --
5.2.4 Age one hundred and five --
5.2.5 Housing 107 --
5.2.6 schooling 108 --
5.3 inhabitants Distribution 108 --
5.4 inhabitants Projection and Forecast one hundred ten --
5.4.1 tools 111 --
5.4.2 selecting the best process 113 --
bankruptcy 6 Defining devices of study --
6.1 Debate on number of Unit of research 117 --
6.2 Census Geography: ideas, standards, and Hierarchy a hundred and twenty --
6.2.1 easy Hierarchy: ordinary Geographic devices one hundred twenty --
6.2.2 Non-Standard Geographic devices 126 --
6.3 Census Geography as a Unit of fairness research: Consistency, comparison, and Availability 128 --
6.3.1 Hierarchical dating and Geographic Boundary 128 --
6.3.2 Boundary comparison over the years 129 --
6.3.3 info Availability and comparison through the years 131 --
6.4 Census Geography as a Unit of fairness research: Which One? 133 --
6.5 substitute devices of research 139 --
6.5.1 according to the Boundary of Environmental affects a hundred and forty --
6.5.2 in keeping with the Boundary of Sociological local 141 --
6.5.3 in accordance with the Boundary of financial affects 142 --
6.5.4 in accordance with the Administrative/Political Boundary or Judicial evaluations 143 --
bankruptcy 7 studying info with Statistical equipment --
7.1 Descriptive facts one hundred forty five --
7.2 Inferential information 149 --
7.3 Correlation and Regression 152 --
7.4 likelihood and Discrete selection versions 156 --
7.5 Spatial statistics 157 --
7.6 purposes of Statistical equipment in Environmental Justice stories 158 --
bankruptcy eight Integrating, reading, and Mapping info with GIS --
8.1 Spatial Measures and ideas 164 --
8.1.1 Spatials info 164 --
8.1.2 Spatial information constitution 164 --
8.1.3 Distance a hundred sixty five --
8.1.4 Centroid one hundred sixty five --
8.2 Spatial Interpolation a hundred sixty five --
8.2.1 element Interpolation 166 --
8.2.2 Areal Interpolation 167 --
8.3 GIS-Based devices of study for fairness research 168 --
8.3.1 Adjacency research 168 --
8.3.2 Buffer research 168 --
8.4 Overlay and Suitability research 172 --
8.5 GIS-Based Operationalization of fairness standards 174 --
8.6 Integrating GIS and concrete and Environmental types a hundred seventy five --
bankruptcy nine Modeling city platforms --
9.1 Gravity versions, Spatial interplay, and Entropy Maximization 178 --
9.2 Deterministic software, Random application, and Discrete selection 181 --
9.2.1 Deterministic application and Optimization 182 --
9.2.2 Random application idea and Discrete selection 183 --
9.3 coverage overview Measures 184 --
9.4 Operational types 186 --
9.5 Integrating city and Environmental versions for Environmental Justice research 191 --
bankruptcy 10 fairness research of pollution --
10.1 Air caliber 195 --
10.2 dating among Air caliber and inhabitants Distribution: Theories, equipment, and facts 199 --
10.2.1.1 Residential position conception and Spatial interplay 199 --
10.2.1.2 danger conception and Human reaction to Air caliber two hundred --
10.2.1.3 Theories of local adjustments 201 --
10.3 Spatial interplay Modeling method of checking out Environmental Inequity 205 --
10.3.1 challenge Definition 205 --
10.3.2 speculation 205 --
10.3.3 tools: Spatial interplay Modeling utilizing DRAM 205 --
10.3.4 Index building and information practise 207 --
10.3.5 version Estimation 210 --
10.3.6.1 la 213 --
10.3.6.2 Houston 215 --
10.4 fairness research of nationwide Ambient Air caliber criteria 219 --
10.4.3.1 Nonattainment parts as an entire 221 --
10.4.3.2 Spatial Distribution and nearby transformations 223 --
10.4.3.3 urban vs. Non-City Nonattainment parts 230 --
10.4.3.4 significant Findings 233 --
10.4.3.5 Implications for Environmental coverage 234 --
bankruptcy eleven Environmental Justice research of detrimental Waste amenities, Superfund websites, and poisonous free up amenities --
11.1 fairness research of dangerous Waste amenities 237 --
11.1.1 detrimental Wastes 237 --
11.1.2 fairness research of harmful Waste amenities 238 --
11.1.2.1 Cross-Sectional nationwide reports 239 --
11.1.2.2 nearby reports 247 --
11.1.3 Methodological concerns 248 --
11.2 fairness research of CERCLIS and Superfund websites 250 --
11.2.1 CERCLIS and Superfund websites 250 --
11.2.2 Hypotheses and Empirical proof 252 --
11.2.3 Methodological matters 257 --
11.3 fairness research of poisonous liberate amenities 258 --
11.3.1 poisonous Releases stock 258 --
11.3.2 nationwide reviews and proof 261 --
11.3.3 local reviews and Methodological advancements 264 --
11.3.4 Methodological concerns 266 --
bankruptcy 12 Dynamics research of in the neighborhood undesirable Land makes use of --
12.1 Methodological matters in Dynamics research 270 --
12.2 Framework for Dynamics research 273 --
12.3 Revisiting the Houston Case: speculation trying out 276 --
12.4 dialogue of other Hypotheses 279 --
12.4.1 Invasion-Succession speculation 279 --
12.4.2 Life-Cycle speculation 280 --
12.4.3 Push Forces: different Environmental dangers 282 --
bankruptcy thirteen fairness research of Transportation structures, tasks, Plans, and regulations --
13.1 Environmental affects of Transportation structures 287 --
13.2 Incorporating fairness research within the Transportation making plans method 288 --
13.3 Transportation approach functionality Measures 291 --
13.4 fairness research of Mobility and Accessibility 292 --
13.4.2 utilizing Accessibility for fairness research 297 --
13.4.3 Empirical facts approximately Mobility Disparity three hundred --
13.4.4 Accessibility Disparity and Spatial Mismatch 302 --
13.5 Measuring Distributional affects on estate Values 304 --
13.6 Measuring Environmental affects 307 --
13.7 fairness research of Transportation rules 308 --
13.8 Environmental Justice of Transportation in court docket 311 --
14.1 Internet-Based and Community-Based instruments 315 --
14.1.1 EPA's Environfacts 315 --
14.1.2 LandView III 317 --
14.1.3 Environmental Defense's Scorecard (http://www.scorecard.org/) 318.

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4 THEORIES OF NEIGHBORHOOD CHANGE The theories reviewed above are mostly static in nature. Theories of neighborhood changes can offer us some insights as to how the relationship between population distribution and environmental risks changes over time. Theories reviewed here include the classical invasion-succession model, the neighborhood life-cycle model, the push-pull model, and institutional theory. , which impose negative externalities on the host communities. 1 CLASSICAL INVASION–SUCCESSION MODEL The Chicago school of human ecology developed the classical invasion-succession model, drawing the concept from the field of biological ecology.

Then, we examine validity and fallacies in scientific research and their manifestations in environmental justice analysis, and we discuss the concept of causality. 2, we briefly summarize major methodological issues in environmental justice research but leave the detailed discussion for subsequent chapters. Finally, we examine an integrated analytical framework for environmental justice analysis. This framework unifies various perspectives that will be presented in subsequent chapters and provides a bird’s eye view of environmental justice analysis.

The location choice might be regarded as utility maximizing in which profit is only one element. Social or environmental attributes might be taken into account in location decisionmaking processes. Furthermore, firm managers may have multiple goals including growth, security, minimization of risk, or entrepreneurial satisfaction. This is the behavioral location theory. The structuralist theory emphasizes the conflict between capital and labor in a capitalist society, the role of large corporations in using their power to achieve authority over their workforces, the role of organized labor in responding to this control, and the overall patterns of change in the world.

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