By Mark Berends Samuel Lucas Thomas J. Sullivan
Examines a number of nationally consultant senior highschool pupil cohorts among the early Nineteen Seventies and to early 1990's to appreciate developments within the arithmetic rankings of those diverse reacial-ethnic teams.
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Extra resources for Examining Gaps in Mathematics Achievement Among Racial Ethic Groups
Individual and Family Characteristics Much of the work on student achievement stresses the importance of individual factors, especially demographic and family characteristics. The following sections review the research on the relationships of test scores to racial-ethnic group, gender, and socioeconomic status. , race-ethnicity, gender, family income, parents’ educational and occupational attainments). Racial-Ethnic Group As we discussed previously, research has consistently shown that black and Latino students are more likely to have lower standardized test scores than white students.
The models we estimate in our analysis attempt to provide such a map, to guide further research that can provide more-detailed topographical characteristics in the portrayal of family, school, and student achievement trends that we examine here. Moreover, our analyses build on Bronfenbrenner’s suggestion that an essential task of researchers should be to “penetrate behind the label of socioeconomic status to identify the speciﬁc elements of social structure and substance that shape the course and content of human development.
1 Often, researchers confuse the “school, an organization, with schooling, a process that individual students experience” (Bidwell and Kasarda, 1980, p. 402, emphasis added). , forthcoming). While recent methods allow for more precision in estimation of individual student and school eﬀects, it is worth noting this skepticism and the technical diﬃculty of measuring contextual eﬀects. , 1972; Lee and Bryk, 1989; Rowan, 2001; Scheerens and Bosker, 1997). Yet in the past couple of decades methodological techniques have advanced to separately estimate eﬀects at the individual and school levels to further our knowledge about the important eﬀects that occur at each level (see Kreft and De Leeuw, 1998; Raudenbush and Bryk, 2002; Singer, 1998; Snijders and Bosker, 1999).