By H. F. G. van Dijk, W. A. J. van Pul (auth.), Harrie F. G. Van Dijk, W. Addo J. Van Pul, Pim De Voogt (eds.)
Global pesticide use is at present anticipated at nearly 2. five billion kg in line with yr (Pimentel eta/. , 1998). To be potent, insecticides have to persist for a undeniable time period. despite the fact that, the longer their patience, the better the opportunity of delivery of a fragment of the volume utilized clear of the objective zone. insecticides are dispersed within the atmosphere by way of water currents, wind, or biota. insecticides can at once contaminate flooring and floor waters by way of leaching, floor run-off and float. insecticides may also input the ambience in the course of software by means of evaporation and flow of small spray droplets, that stay airborne. Following software, insecticides might volatilise from the crop or the soil. ultimately, wind erosion may cause soil debris and mud loaded with insecticides to go into the ambience. the level to which insecticides input the air compartment is determined by many elements: the houses of the substance in query (e. g. vapour pressure), the quantity used, the tactic of program, the formula, the elements stipulations (such as wind pace, temperature, humidity), the character of the crop and soil features. Measurements at software websites demonstrate that usually greater than 1/2 the quantity utilized is misplaced into the ambience inside of a couple of days (Spencer and Cliath, 1990; Taylor and Spencer; 1990; Van den Berg et a/. , this issue).
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Additional info for Fate of Pesticides in the Atmosphere: Implications for Environmental Risk Assessment: Proceedings of a workshop organised by The Health Council of the Netherlands, held in Driebergen, The Netherlands, April 22–24, 1998
R. r. r. r. r. r. r. r. r. r. r. r. r. r. r. r. r. r. r. r. G. VAN DIJK AND R. GUICHERIT TABLE IV (continued) Iocation 1 period 2 maximum concentration mean or median cone. r. r. r. r. r. r. d. r. r. r. r. r. r. r. r. r. r. r. r. r. 139 13 Hantz, F Vosges, Kreuzberg, F Jouarre, F Jouarre, F Griize (ZUrich), CH 41 ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION OF CURRENT-USE PESTICIDES TABLE IV (continued) location 1 period2 maximum concentration mean or median conc. r. r. r. r. r. r. d. r. = not reported. G. VAN DIJK AND R.
R. r. r. r. r. d. r. = not reported. G. VAN DIJK AND R. GUICHERIT TABLE V Wet deposition ofmecoprop as determined with bulk or wet-only precipitation samplers maximum mean or deposition concentration median cone? r. d. r. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. r. d. r. d. r. r. r. r. r. r. r. r. 033 10 location' Evo, Mekrijiirvi, FIN BUhl, D period 2 ref. r. r. r. r. r. r. r. r. r. d. d. d. 23 3-7/91 Heilbronn, D 3/89-10/90, 3-7/91 Schabisch Hall, D 3/89-10/90, 3-7/91 Hohenfinow, D 4-12/91 43 ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION OF CURRENT-USE PESTICIDES TABLEV (continued) location• period2 maximum concentration mean or median conc.
G. VAN DUK AND R. GUICHERIT TABLE II Pesticides detected in air in Europe pesticide chemical type country reference structure alachlor AA H aldicarb c I, N F 6,9 arnetryn T H F 3 atrazine T H D, F, NL, UK 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12 chlorothalonil 0 F NL 10 chlorpropharn c H NL 10 chlorpyrifos OP UK 12 cyanazine T H F 3 2,4-D PA H NL 4 deltarnethrin PYR UK 12 dichlobenil 0 dichlorvos OP NL 4 endosulfan I, II oc NL 4 fenpropathrin PYR F 6, 9 fenpropimorph 0 F UK 12 isoproturon u H F,UK 6, 9, 11, 12 lindane (yHCH) oc N, F, NL, UK, S 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 13, 14 8 8 H mecoprop (MCPP) PA H NL,F 4,6, 9 metolachlor AA H NL 10 mevinphos OP NL 4 parathion( -ethy I) OP NL,I 4,8 parathion-methyl OP F 6,9 pentachlorophenol oc NL 4 ph orate OP simazine T F 8 H F, NL, UK 3, 4, 1 I, 12 ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION OF CURRENT-USE PESTICIDES 31 TABLE II (continued) pesticide chemical type country reference structure terbumeton T H F 3 terbuthylazine T H F 3 tri-allate 0 H NL 10 tri fl ural in 0 H NL, I, UK 4, 8, 12 vinclozolin 0 F NL 10 For abbreviations: see table I.