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FM: Modern Neurosurgery: Clinical Translation of by Dr. Dennis A. Turner

By Dr. Dennis A. Turner

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While much of this chapter discussed the mechanisms underlying graft integration into a host, by the time when human grafting experiments are pursued for neurological disorders, these principles will not be known in human subjects although they presumably will have been developed in animal models. Most medications helpful in treating seizures, head injuries, and strokes now have known bases from laboratory studies but this was not true at their market introduction. Thus, there is no need to have actual mechanistic understanding for a treatment to go forward and become FDA approved.

Fortunately, ongoing advances in neurobiology coupled with initiatives to facilitate the translation of this research into medical therapy promise to change this paradigm from palliation to cure. Broadly speaking, current approaches to the treatment of SCI fall into one of four categories: (1) the prevention of secondary injury and delayed demyelination or axon loss (neuroprotection), (2) the repair or replacement of interrupted neural circuitry (spinal cord repair), (3) the use of aggressive rehabilitation techniques to optimize recovery through residual spinal cord plasticity (rehabilitation), and (4) the augmentation of function through prostheses (prosthetics).

6. R. , Transplantation of embryonic dopamine neurons for severe Parkinson’s disease, NEJM, 344, 710–719, 2001. 7. Arvidsson, A. , 8, 963–970, 2002. 8. E. , Hypothetical mechanisms for the cellular and neurophysiological basis of secondary epileptogenesis, J. Clin. , 14, 90–101, 1997. 9. K. , Fetal hippocampal cells grafted to kainate-lesioned adult hippocampus suppress aberrant supragranular sprouting of host mossy fibers, Exp. , 143, 231–245, 1997. 10. P. , 5, E124–E152, 2000. 11. , Stem cell repair of central nervous system injury, J.

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