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Force & Accommodation in World Politics by Stanley E Spangler, Airpower Research Institute

By Stanley E Spangler, Airpower Research Institute

With fiscal pressures, demographic adjustments and the said futility of nuclear conflict gradually eroding the perceived software of conventional army strength, international locations are having a look with new prefer at the conciliatory instruments that have been used a few successfully in the course of the classical international relations of the nineteenth century (negotiation, bargaining, using inducements). briefly – a international relations emphasizing cooperation and lodging. strength will nonetheless be an enormous participant in overseas politics, specially at decrease degrees of clash. whereas the realm strikes slowly towards a few new safeguard association, it behooves the superpowers to stress a cooperative type of international relations.

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12 American policymakersfrom Harry S . Truman to RonaldReagan and George Bush, as well as many Soviet leaders, have bent over backward to avoid association with anything that might smack of appeasement . " It is true that during the Gorbachev years, American policymakers have been more forthcoming with inducements and concessions than was true earlier . To no small extent, however, this development came about only after Gorbachev had made an astounding number of important Soviet concessions . Other obstacles have hindered the development of what Alexander George and Richard Smoke call "inducement theory" in their excellent book, Deterrence in American Foreign Policy: Theory and Practice .

For example, is the use of armed force-in this case a quick surprise strike intended to 11 FORCE AND ACCOMMODATION persuade the adversary to adopt a certain course of actionappropriate when dealing with a shadowy, amorphous, elusive field of conflict like terrorism? Was the demonstrative use offorce employed too early, before all other options had been explored? Is it realistic to assume that terrorism will be curtailed by the US action or is terrorism more likely to increase as a result? Did the action do anything to address the root causes of terrorism or did it simply attack the symptoms?

George and Smoke, 47. 9. See Dimitri K. Simes, "Soviet Policy toward the United States," in The Making ofAmerica's Soviet Policy, ed. Joseph S. Nye, Jr. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984),305-6 . 10. John Steinbruner, "Arms Control: Crisis or Compromise," Foreign Affairs 63, no. 5 (Summer 1985): 1049. 21 FORCE AND ACCOMMODATION 11. For a good discussion of our tendency to apply a "military grid" to complex political situations, see Hoffman,156-57 . 12. Michael Nacht, "On Memories, Interests, and Foreign Policy : The Case of Vietnam," in National Security and International Stability, ed.

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