Innovation is essential to eco-friendly development. It is helping decouple development from common capital depletion and contributes to financial development and activity construction. company is the driving force of innovation, yet governments have to supply transparent and strong marketplace indications, e.g. via carbon pricing. This booklet explores coverage activities for the deployment of latest applied sciences and strategies as they emerge: funding in learn and improvement, aid for commercialisation, strengthening markets and fostering expertise diffusion. pageant might be necessary to convey out the simplest suggestions.
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Additional info for Fostering Innovation for Green Growth (OECD Green Growth Studies)
1). In most of these areas, the United States, Japan and Germany account for most of the links to green patents (OECD, 2010d). 1. 8% Immunology and Microbiology Energy (100% = all citations) Environmental science Scientific papers Source: OECD calculations, based on Scopus Custom Data, Elsevier, July 2009; OECD, Patent Database, January 2010; and EPO, Worldwide Patent Statistical Database, September 2009. Similar mappings have been made in other fields. All point to the growing multidisciplinarity of research, where scientific progress depends on research efforts across a wide range of fields.
The main reason for this funding gap is that the further the horizon, the higher the financing risk for seed and early stage venture funds of being unable to ensure a successful exit or to raise follow-on funding before the end of the life of the venture fund (Nanda and Rhodes-Kropf, 2010). These projects are therefore very hard to fund with either project or debt financing or venture capital and can fall into the “Valley of Death”. 5. Financing of risky projects and example of clean-tech investments Project finance/ existing firms Hard to fund (“Valley of Death”) Bank debt/ existing firms low Venture capital Technology risk high Capital intensity of project high Capital intensity of project high x x x x Wind farms Utility-scale solar ‘First-gen’ biofuel refineries Fabs for solar cells using established technologies x Wind and solar components of proven technologies x Internal combustion engines x Insulation / Building material x Energy efficiency services low x First commercial plants for unproven solar cell technologies x Advanced biofuel refineries x Offshore wind farms x Carbon sequestration x Energy efficiency software x Lighting x Electric drive trains x Fuel cells / Power storage x Wind and solar components of unproven technologies Technology risk Source: Ghosh and Nanda, 2010.
The economic benefits of this model are less evident than in the other business models, but the sharing of products may pave the way for new products to the market. Source: FORA (2010). FOSTERING INNOVATION FOR GREEN GROWTH – © OECD 2011 42 – 1. INNOVATION IN GREEN GROWTH STRATEGIES Notes 1. An interim report was prepared for the MCM in 2010 (OECD, 2010a). 2. g. g. g. g. design and introduction of entirely new solutions. 3. Sustainable Chemistry: Evidence on Innovation from Patent Data, Risk Management Series No.