By T.R. Bott
This specified and finished textual content considers all facets of warmth exchanger fouling from the elemental technology of ways surfaces develop into fouled to very functional methods of mitigating the matter and from mathematical modelling of other fouling mechanisms to functional equipment of warmth exchanger cleansing. the issues that limit the effective operation of apparatus are defined and the prices, a few of them hidden expenses, which are linked to the fouling of warmth exchangers are mentioned. a few basic recommendations and versions of the fouling approaches are awarded as a part of the advent to the subject.Advice at the choice, layout, install and commissioning of warmth exchangers to minimise fouling is given. a wide a part of the textual content is dedicated to using chemical and different ingredients to minimize or cast off the matter of fouling. one other huge part is designed to offer details on either online and off-line cleansing of warmth exchangers. one of many problems confronted by means of designers and operators of warmth exchangers is looking forward to the most likely volume of fouling difficulties to be encountered with assorted circulation streams. one other huge part addresses the query and describes equipment which have been utilized in trying to outline fouling power. The ebook concludes with a bankruptcy on how fouling details will be bought utilizing plant facts, box exams and laboratory experiences.
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Extra info for Fouling of Heat Exchangers (Chemical Engineering Monographs 026)
Effects of this kind will be discussed in more detail later. , 1990, Final report of the HTRI/TEMA joint committee to review the fouling section of TEMA standards. Heat. Trans. Eng. 11, No. 1, 73. L. , 1994, Process Heat Transfer. CRC Press, Boca Raton. 1 INTRODUCTION In Chapter 1 some of the factors that contribute to the cost of fouling were mentioned. It is the purpose of this chapter to give more detail in respect of these costs. Attempts have been made to make estimates of the overall costs of fouling in terms of particular processes or in particular countries.
E . e. the Reynolds number has been doubled due to the presence of the deposit. In addition the roughness of the deposit surface will be different from the clean heat exchanger surface roughness (usually greater) which will result in a change in the level of turbulence particularly near the surface. Greater roughness will produce greater turbulence with its enhancement of heat transfer or a smoother surface may reduce the level of turbulence. An alternative statement describing the effects of fouling may be made on this basis [Bott and Walker 1971 ].
In general terms for instance, a liquid with a high viscosity will have a low Reynolds number and hence it is likely to flow under laminar conditions, and a liquid with a high density is likely to be turbulent under flowing conditions. The velocity distribution is different under these two regimes. Under laminar conditions the velocity profile is a parabola (see Fig. 1) and the mean velocity of flow is half the velocity at the centre of the tube (the maximum velocity). Under turbulent conditions the velocity profile is no longer parabolic but is as shown on Fig.