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Fueling Reform: Energy Technologies for the Former East Bloc by U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment

By U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment

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34, N(). 6, June 1993, p. 384. ~e Energy ]ndustrics of [he Fom]er USSR,” p. S. enl pfJllernS, pp. 22-;0 42 | Fueling Reform: Energy Technologies for the Former East Bloc Truck-mounted drilling rig used for oil well drilling at Langepas, Western Siberia. 9 The first stage in the exploration process is the identification of promising oil regions by measuring changes (by aircraft, satellite, and ground observations) in magnetic fields and variation in the Earth’s gravity. Once promising regions have been established, seismic surveys are performed to identify exploratory drilling sites within the region.

Even so, Turkmenistan remains the second largest gas producer in the FSU and the third largest in the world. Also, Ukraine’s output declined by 14 percent. Its heavy reliance on Russian gas imports has forced Ukraine to seek alternative suppliers such as Iran. In 1993, Ukraine, Iran, and Azerbaijan formed a joint venture to build gas pipelines through Azerbaijan to Western Europe. 15 Unlike the other former republics, Uzbekistan’s natural gas production continues to rise. 1 percent. 16 28 I Fueling Reform: Energy Technologies for the Former East Bloc Country Russia W.

5. 2 Heavily subsidized energy prices, the lack of market incentives, and the importance given to fulfilling quotas and achieving state plans contributed substantially to the high energy requirements and corresponding production in the region. In recent years, the energy picture has changed somewhat. Energy production, particularly of oil and coal, is falling, largely due to inadequate investment in exploration, the use of outmoded technologies, the lack of spare parts, and poor maintenance. The dissolution of the Soviet Union and the resultant political and economic changes further limit output.

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