By National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements
This document develops information on radiation exposures taking place in area actions. Radiation danger estimates for carcinogenesis, genetic results and nonstochastic results have been applied to enhance threat comparisons on which profession publicity limits are established. a massive results of this process is a differentiation in limits in accordance with age and intercourse. significant sections of the document deal with radiation environments in house, radiation publicity to team of workers, radiobiological beneficial properties of the gap radiation surroundings, and radiation defense criteria in area. The document additionally identifies wanted learn proper to radiation exposures in area actions.
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Additional resources for Guidance on Radiation Received in Space Activities:
Another unit of absorbed dose often used is the rad, defined as the net absorption of 100 ergs of energy per gram of material One Gy equals 100 rad. The material absorbing the energy is assumed to be water, a material close in radiation absorption properties to that of tissue 28 1 4. 12 Dose Equivalent I t is well established that different types of radiation cause different amounts of biological damage per unit of absorbed dose In particular, charged particles with higher rates of energy loss per unit length of track such as HZE particles, and low energy protons, a~ more effectivein p m ducing biological effects than particles such as electrons and high energy protons with lower rates of energy loss per unit track length The physical characteristic presently used to quantify this difference is the rate of energy loss per unit length of track in the material; this quantity is called the linear energy transfer or LET.
The particle planar track fluence is the number of particles incident on a unit area of a planar surface, The particle planar fluencerate is the particle planar fluence per unit time In contrast, the particle fluence is the number of particles passing through a sphereof unit cross-sectional area, and the particle fluence rate is the particle fluence per unit time. For an isotropic particle beam the particle fluence and particle fluence rate values are a factor of two larger than their planar counterparts.
NOV. T. NOV. T. 0 SEPT. 2 , 1 9 6 6 . T. 0 SEPT. T. T. -V JAN. T. = O SEPT. 2 , 1 9 7 1 , 0 8 0 0 U f . A SEPT. T. 1. -* - F I I 1 1 1 1 1111 10 1 I 1 -3, 1 l l t l l I00 I I 1 500 KINETIC ENERGY (MeV NUC-l) Fig. 3-6 Fm ' Proton spectra for various selected solar particle events (SPE)Pal& Biswas, 19831. a d 24 1 3. RADIATION ENVIRONMENT IN SPACE fluence h m all ordinary SPE over a 90-day mission is only about three percent of the fluencefrom one anomalously large event. This model has been used to predict the number of anomalously large events expected over a given length of time (Stauber et aL, 1983).