By Anne Applebaum
The Gulag--a monstrous array of Soviet focus camps that held thousands of political and legal prisoners--was a method of repression and punishment that terrorized the whole society, embodying the worst traits of Soviet communism. during this magisterial and acclaimed background, Anne Applebaum bargains the 1st absolutely documented portrait of the Gulag, from its origins within the Russian Revolution, via its growth below Stalin, to its cave in within the period of glasnost. Applebaum in detail re-creates what existence used to be like within the camps and hyperlinks them to the bigger background of the Soviet Union. instantly well-known as a landmark and long-overdue paintings of scholarship, Gulag is a necessary ebook for somebody who needs to appreciate the heritage of the 20th century.
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Extra resources for Gulag: A History
517. I. Frost, 'Initium Calamitatis Regni? John Casimir and monarchical power in Poland-Lithuania, 1648-1668' European History Quarterly 16(1986). A . M . Fredro, Scriptorum seu Togae et Bellum Notationum Fragmenta. Accesserunt Peristromata Regum Symbolis Expressa (Danzig, 1660). 14 Introduction Thereafter it became a regular feature of political life. The nadir was reached in the reign of Augustus III (1733-63), when only the 1736 diet passed any laws at all. The central political issue of John Casimir's reign was the extent and nature of royal authority, a conflict which had been intensifying since 1574.
K u b a l a , Wojna moskiewska r. 1654-1655 (Warsaw, Cracow, 1910); Wojna szwecka w roku 16551 1656 ( L w o w , 1913); Wojna brandenburska i najazd Rakoczego w roku 1656 i 1657 ( L w o w , Warsaw, 1917); Wojny dunskie i pokoj olimijski ( L w o w , 1922). K . ), Polska w okresie drugiej wojny poinocnej 4 vols. (Warsaw, 1957). 24 Introduction nobles, not senators or ministers. S. Radziwill, Lithuanian grand hetman from 1623 to 1656, which is such an informative source for the reign of Wladyslaw IV and the early years of John Casimir, but which says little after the outbreak of war in 1655.
8 The 1648 rising received massive support from Ukrainian peasants, but it was not the direct result of peasant discontent. Peasant risings elsewhere in the Commonwealth, in protest against the harsh conditions of serfdom, were not uncommon but they tended to be highly localised and easy to control. In the Ukraine, however, it was not just the peasants who were discontented. Not every member of the Ukrainian elites benefited from the union after 1569, since not all who considered themselves noble were subsequently recognised as such.