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Eukaryotic cells comprise a plurality of organelles distinct by means of their particular membranes and contents. Their biogenesis happens via development and department of preexisting buildings instead of de novo. Mitochondria and chloroplasts, which seem to be descended from prokaryotic ancestors, have retained a few DNA and the biosynthetic power for its expression.
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Thermodynamic data predict sulfate formation (Dutrizac and MacDonald 1974; Lowson 1982) as shown in the following reaction: (8) The electrochemical pathway (Lowson 1982) is the summation of two half-cell reactions as follows: 38 B. C. Kelley and O. H. Tuovinen 1. The anode: FeS2 + 8H2 0 ~ Fe 3+ + 2S0;- + 16H+ + 15e-. (9) 2. The cathode: O2 +4H+ +4e- ~ 2H 2 0. (10) Both the chemical and electrochemical reactions make important contributions to localized iron environments in nature (Lowson 1982).
A major contributor to the microbial consortia is the chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. For a more comprehensive listing of the sulfur- and iron-oxidizing bacteria, the reader is directed to the excellent reviews by Ralph (1979) and Norris and Kelly (1982). Under field conditions, the degradation of these mineral materials is a dynamic process involving a succession of microbial populations (Ralph 1979; Lundgren and Malouf 1983) which develop according to the prevailing environmental conditions.
This will be discussed in more detail later in this section. In the absence of iron, protons (H +) play a central catalytic role in the mechanism of bacterial oxidation of metal sulfides (Tributsch and Bennett 1981a,b). , ZnS) with large energy gaps leach faster than more electronically favorable sulfides (Tributsch and Bennett 1981a; Vaughan 1984). There appears to be no direct correlation with the energy difference between the position of the electron transport system ofthe bacterium and the highest filled energy band ofthe sulfides.