By Eran Feitelson
Overcoming the shortage and temporal variance of water availability in semi-arid areas, or the surplus of water in temperate areas, frequently calls for cooperation. This paper describes the process taken by way of an Israeli-Palestinian group to spot joint administration constructions for the aquifers shared via those events, and a few of the teachings discovered from the adventure of this crew.
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Additional resources for Identification of Joint Management Structures for Shared Aquifers: A Cooperative Palestinian-Israeli Effort (World Bank Technical Paper)
Finally, a drilling licensing element is needed to prevent over-pumping and consequent salinization. The fourth level of the JWM structure includes field teams of both sides, and the different local and regional authorities and water utilities or units. These may include local water or wastewater utilities, or municipal or regional water units. This level, where local units operate separately according to the guidelines set by the JWM structure, will be responsible for implementing many of the provisions needed to protect the aquifer.
In the case that utilities are established, the two parties should agree upon the financing mechanisms or the power to collect levies. In the fourth stage, the constraints for trading should be further scrutinized, to assure that the aquifer is not damaged. As part of this effort the joint commissions should require drilling and pumpage licenses (also of the utility), and the water quality in the aquifer also should be monitored. -Mexico case (Killgore and Eaton, 1995). The institutional structure of an economically based JWM system would include three basic elements.
Thus, negotiators from both parties were well aware of the ideas and views generated by this study throughout the course of the overall negotiations. Page 6 Table 1: Possible Joint Management Structures StructureFunctionStaffingCooperative LevelFinancingExternal Support1Appointment monitoring bodyMonitor extractions & complianceSeparate professional staff (hydrologists)ModerateBy partiesPerhaps by funding2Investigative advisory bodyInvestigation of technical disputesAdministrative staff onlyModerateBy partiesPerhaps professional oversight3Technical research bodyCoordinate & initiate researchSmall Administrative staffLimitedResearch by grants & by partiesFunding & peer reviews4Aquifer monitoring bodyMonitor water quality & quantityJoint or separate hydrological staffMinimalBy partiesNone5Economic development bodyPlan & coordinate economic development over aquiferTechnical, economic & engineering staffsVery highBy partiesFinance and technical6Project management bodyManage & coordinate water projectsEconomic & engineering staffVery highBy parties and foreign aidMainly funding7Joint regulatory bodyProject aquiferPlanning, legal & technicalHighBy partiesNone8Integrated aquifer management bodyManage aquiferModerate size, comprehensiveExtremely highBy parties & chargesNone9Centralized aquifer management bodyManage aquiferLarge staff, comprehensiveExtremely highSelf-financingFinancing & arbitration10Water transfer & market administering bodyAdminister water marketsModerate size, economic, legal & engineeringVery highMostly selffinancingNone11Risk management bodyPrepare for & manage emergenciesSeparate technical StaffsModerateBy partiesNone12Pollution control bodyAquifer protectionSeparate legal, planning & hydrologicalHighBy partiesNone13Resource conservation bodyPromote water conservationSmall separate technical staffsLowBy partiesFunding14Resource apportionment bodyDiscuss apportionment issuesMinimal joint administrative staffLowBy parties & foreign aidFunding & teaching15Training establishmentTrain professionalsMinimal joints administrative & professionalsLowBy parties & foreign aidFunding & teaching16Arbitration bodyDispute resolutionSmall administrativeModerateNoneNone17Water utilityWater supplyLarge professional*Very highSelf-financingNone18Waste-water utilityWaste-water treatmentComprehensive staffs*ModeratehighSelf-financingFunding19Aquifer management corporationPump & sell waterLarge professional staff*HighSelf-financingNone Source E.