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Ion Beam Modification of Solids: Ion-Solid Interaction and by Werner Wesch, Elke Wendler

By Werner Wesch, Elke Wendler

This booklet provides the tactic of ion beam amendment of solids in consciousness, idea and purposes in a complete manner. It offers a assessment of the actual fundamentals of ion-solid interplay and on ion-beam brought on structural transformations of solids. Ion beams are primary to change the actual homes of fabrics. an entire idea of ion preventing in subject and the calculation of the power loss as a result of nuclear and digital interactions are offered together with the influence of ion channeling. to provide an explanation for structural adjustments because of excessive digital excitations, assorted recommendations are provided with detailed emphasis at the thermal spike version. additionally, basic recommendations of wear evolution as a functionality of ion mass, ion fluence, ion flux and temperature are defined intimately and their limits and applicability are mentioned. The impression of nuclear and digital power loss on structural adjustments of solids equivalent to harm formation, section transitions and amorphization is reviewed for insulators and semiconductors. eventually a few chosen functions of ion beams are given.

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A similar formula was derived by Tilinin [60] with the only difference that the factor f is not a fitting function but it is determined by an integral (see [60]), where the integrand depends on the interatomic interaction potential. The resulting factor f ¼ fT ðZ1 =Z2 ; EÞ ð1:120Þ is a function of the energy E and it depends symmetrically on Z1 and Z2. For the Thomas-Fermi interaction potential used, Tilinin found fT . 1 which is smaller than the fitting function fLS of Lindhard and Scharff. 5 Comparison of Stopping Power Theories In order to compare the results of the different stopping power theories, a few examples are presented.

Furthermore, D E X ðnk À hnk iÞ2 ¼ Pnk ðnk À hnk iÞ2 ¼ hnk i ð1:52Þ nk is valid. 1 Energy Loss Distribution and Averages For one ion with a given ion path (n1, n2, n3 …), the energy loss DE reads DE ¼ X ð1:53Þ nk T k k and for an ion beam [ensemble of different ion paths that means different sets of values (n1, n2, n3 …)], the transmission through the layer results in a distribution of DE characterized by the average energy loss and the energy straggling (width of the distribution). 51) the average energy loss is obtained by hDEi ¼ X X rk Tk hnk i Tk ¼ N Dz k k and the mean square deviation (energy straggling) is given by ð1:54Þ 24 K.

81)] is a well defined quantity, the distant collision contribution b S dc e ðEÞ is influenced by the uncertainty of the binding frequencies xb,i. The electronic straggling cross section is not influenced by this uncertainty b e;min;i ¼ 0 can be used without any problem (here, the binding is of because T minor importance). 2   b 2 ¼ Z2 Be T b e;max ¼ 4pZ2 Z2 24 : be T dre E; T e 1 ð1:85Þ 0 First Born Approximation The situation considered is the following. The ion is assumed to be totally stripped.

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