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Light-Activated Pesticides by James R. Heitz, Kelsey R. Downum

By James R. Heitz, Kelsey R. Downum

content material: improvement of photoactivated compounds as insecticides / James R. Heitz --
sort I and kind II mechanisms of photodynamic motion / Christopher S. Foote --
Photomodification and singlet oxygen new release in membranes / Dennis Paul Valenzeno --
settling on singlet oxygen in chemical, photochemical, and enzymic reactions / Ahsan U. Khan --
Singlet oxygen quantum yields / Michael A.J. Rodgers --
Biochemistry of photodynamic motion / John D. Spikes and Richard C. immediately --
Photodynamic amendment of excitable mobile functionality / John P. Pooler --
Physiological results of photodynamic motion : exact connection with bugs / Joseph E. Weaver --
a number of mechanisms of dye-induced toxicity in bugs / G.D. Pimprikar and Mary Jane Coign --
box improvement of photooxidative dyes as pesticides / Lisa A. Lemke, P.G. Koehler, R.S. Patterson, Mary B. Feger, and Thomas Eickhoff --
Photodecomposition of clearly taking place biocides / Y. Yoke Marchant --
[Alpha]-terthienyl as a photoactive insecticide : poisonous results on nontarget organisms / Jacques Kagan, William J. Bennett, Edgard D. Kagan, Jacqueline L. Maas, Susan A. Sweeney, Isabelle A. Kagan, Emmanuelle Seigneurie, and Vitautas Bindokas --
utilizing bacterial mutants and remodeling DNA to outline phototoxic mechanisms / R.W. Tuveson --
cost of the sunshine brigade : phototoxicity as a security opposed to bugs / M.R. Berenbaum --
organic activities and metabolic ameliorations of furanocoumarins / G. Wayne Ivie --
Fungicidal task of clearly happening photosensitizers / G.H. Neil Towers and Donald E. Champagne --
constitution and serve as relationships in polyacetylene photoactivity / Y. Yoke Marchant and Geoffrey okay. Cooper --
Thiophenes and acetylenes: phototoxic brokers to herbivorous and blood-feeding bugs / J.T. Arnason, B.J.R. Philogène, P. Morand, J.C. Scaiano, N. Werstiuk, and J. Lam --
Photodynamic motion of hypericin / J. Paul Knox, Richard I. Samuels, and Alan D. avert --
The fungal photosensitizer cercosporin and its function in plant illness / Margaret E. Daub --
Light-activated antimicrobial chemical compounds from crops : their capability function in resistance to disease-causing organisms / Kelsey R. Downum and Stan Nemec --
Photodynamic herbicides and chlorophyll biosynthesis modulators / C.A. Rebeiz, A. Montazer-Zouhoor, J.M. Mayasich, B.C. Tripathy, S.M. Wu, and C.C. Rebeiz.

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FOOTE Two other trapping systems are used primarily for kinetic characterization of singlet oxygen; neither is likely to be useful in systems where there is more than one strong oxidant. One is a sensitive system using the production and ESR detection of the nitroxide radical from a tertiary amine (a process whose mechanism and stoichiometry are poorly understood) ( 3 6 ) . The second uses the bleaching of a p-nitrosodimethylaniline on reaction with the peroxide produced by singlet oxygen and histidine as a measure of singlet oxygen production (37).

T h e s e r a d i c a l s c a n react directly with o x y g e n to g i v e p e r o x i d e s or initiate r a d i c a l c h a i n a u t o x i d a t i o n . H y d r o g e n a b s t r a c t i o n is particularly c o m m o n with k e t o n e a n d q u i n o n e s e n s i t i z e r s , but a l s o o c c u r s with m a n y d y e s , although usually les d o n o r s promote this reactio R C=0 2 + R'-H R C-0H o + R'« Radical Chain Reactions T h e T y p e II Process T h e T y p e II r e a c t i o n p r o d u c e s s i n g l e t m o l e c u l a r o x y g e n , w h i c h r e a c t s directly with s u b s t r a t e s to give o x y g e n a t e d products or d e c a y s to the g r o u n d state if it fails to react.

Saito, E. J. Phys. Chem. 1971, 75, 2263-6. 40. ; Matsuura, T . ; Inoue, K. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1983, 105, 3200-6. 41. Murray, R. W. In Singlet Oxygen: Wasserman, H. ; Murray, R. W . ; Academic: New York, 1979; pp 59-114. ; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1987. 38 LIGHT-ACTIVATED PESTICIDES 42. Deneke, C. ; Krinsky, N. I. Photochem. Photobiol. 1977, 25, 299304. 43. Kanofsky, J. Biochem. Biophvs. Res. Comm. 1986. 134, 777-82. 44. Keene, J. ; Land, E. ; Redmond, R.

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