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Liquids and gases: principles of fluid mechanics by Paul Fleisher

By Paul Fleisher

Discusses the medical ideas of fluid mechanics that permit basketballs to dance and hot-air balloons to upward thrust, demonstrating the habit of beverages and gases via basic illustrations and experiments.

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Scientists still have much to learn about the stars and planets, the atom, and the miracles of life. There are still more laws to discover and more mysteries to solve. Perhaps you may one day add your name to that distinguished list of scientists who have helped discover the secrets of the universe. Timeline c. C. D. 44 1624 Jan Baptista van Helmont first uses the word “gas” to describe a state of matter other than solid or liquid c. 1643 Evangelista Torricelli invents and builds the first mercury barometer to measure atmospheric pressure c.

Bernoulli’s principle says that the pressure of a gas or liquid decreases as its velocity increases. In the experiment you just tried, the air above the paper was moving fast because you were blowing. The air below the strip of paper was still. That means the moving air above the paper had less pressure than the air below it. Since there was more pressure below the paper than above it, the paper was pushed upward. The same principle that caused the paper to rise also gives airplanes their lift.

Every refrigerator has tubes called coils. In some refrigerators and freezers, you can see the coils. They are the winding metal tubes often covered with frost. In these coils, a pressurized gas is allowed to release its pressure. When that happens, the gas becomes cooler. This takes place inside an insulated box that we call the refrigerator. As the gas gets cooler, it absorbs heat and cools whatever is in the box too. After the gas has cooled the inside of the refrigerator, it is pumped outside the insulated box.

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