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Additional info for Lithium-ion batteries : advanced materials and technologies
Therefore, a separator with uniform permeability is essential for a long cycle life and for preventing lithium dendrite formation on the anode electrode. Uniform distribution and a tortuous structure of the pores are both highly desirable since the former ensures a uniform current distribution throughout the separator, and the latter suppresses the growth of lithium dendrite. When the temperature rises to the softening temperature, the membrane tends to shrink, even with very low porosity. The thermal shrinkage should be minimized to not more than 5% shrinkage after 60 min at 90°C .
Polyamide imide (PAI) has high mechanical strength and is reported to improve the initial coulombic efficiency significantly by maintaining the electrical-conductive network . Although the PAI binder is found to react with Li+ ions and electrons during the first charge, the capacity fading of the silicon anode is remarkably alleviated by using PAI as a binder with high tensile strength. Another interesting conductive polymer was recently reported to work as both a binder and a conductive matrix .
The lithiation/delithiation of the silicon alloy electrode thus inevitably leads to severe volume changes ∼300%. The mechanical strain generated from the massive volume change prompts cracking and crumbling of the electrode, which leads to loss of electronic contact between particles and thereby a capacity loss within a few cycles. While promising progress has been made with the high-capacity alloy anodes, structural stability issues still remain [4,107,108]. In addition, with potentials close to that of lithium metal, the alloy anodes have the same issue in safety as the carbon-based anodes.