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Lithuania ascending: a pagan empire within east-central by Rowell Stephen Christopher

By Rowell Stephen Christopher

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Additional resources for Lithuania ascending: a pagan empire within east-central Europe, 1295-1345

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13 7-9 , pp. 20 3-5. 7 For 13 19 letter to Lokietek see below n. 9. In 13 17 the Teutonic Knights exhorted King John not to allow the Polish duke to swindle him o f his throne - Dlugosz, IX, 96-7. On link between 13 1 7 letters and the Polish case see Elistoria dyplomacji polskiej, ed. M. Biskup, I (Warsaw, 1982), 2 32 -3. 8 On Arbroath see Annates Ecclesiastici, ed. C . , X X I V (Paris-FreiburgBar-le-Duc, 1872), 13 4 -7 , 376-7. 4 Central and eastern Europe, i2go—i^20 against the schismatic Rus’ians, the Tatars and the pagan Lithu­ anians and the safe collection o f papal taxes.

Diplomatic tension was maintained by all factions in central and eastern Europe at that time. There was no monolithic balance o f ‘ great’ powers. Lithuania survived because she too learnt to play the game. In their policy o f rapprochement with the Knights, Boleslaw’s elder sons were supported by Bishop Florian o f Plock whose see covered the whole o f Mazovia. Needless to say, this provoked the ire o f the Lithuanians who attacked the bishop’s lands and his cathedral repeatedly. An assault on the diocese o f Plock did not necessarily involve any danger to Waclaw for the cathedral stood in Pultusk outside his recently created duchy.

29 1—2 ; and, Tatarzy w dawtiej Rzeczypospolitej (Warsaw, 1986), 35. The error persists - J. Tyszkiewicz, Tatarzy tia Litwie i w Polsce. Studia z dziejow X l l l - X V I l l w . (Warsaw, 1989), 14 5-6, based on A. Mukhlinskii, lssledovania 0 proiskhozhdenii i sostoanii litovskikh Tatar' (Odessa, 1902), 52. Here Mukhlinskii allegedly cites L. Wadding, Annales Minorum, (Lyons, 1672), 459 to the effect that friars travelling to Lithuania in 1324 came across Scythians from the land o f a certain Khan who worshipped God in an Asiatic tongue.

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