By R. Friedman
This can be the 1st book-length examine of masculinity in Imperial Russia. by means of reliable and unofficial existence at universities around the Russian empire, this venture bargains an image of the advanced procedures during which gender ideologies have been solid and negotiated within the 19th Century. Masculinity, Autocracy and the Russian collage, 1804-1863 demonstrates how gender was once severe to political lifestyles in a ecu monarchy.
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Extra info for Masculinity, Autocracy and the Russian University, 1804–1863
100 The university’s rigid disciplinary regime and system of regulations was designed to ensure that students internalized ofﬁcial values. 101 Students were compelled, under the threat of punishment or promise of reward, to change their outward behavior, which was believed to reﬂect their inner selves. In fact, the Russian word nravy encompasses both English manners and morals. 102 The content of the administrative ideal of masculinity thus equally reﬂected an emphasis on external manners and internal morals.
Those who did not wish to drink were perceived as outsiders, less virile, and, by extension less masculine. And those who did were celebrated among their peers. This alcohol-steeped, all-male world of tavern sociability was clearly at odds with the ofﬁcial prescriptions for restraint and decency found in ofﬁcial university codes of conduct and enforced by student inspectors. But, even as they tried to instill in their protégés the state’s values of orderly conduct, university administrators sometimes turned a blind eye or allowed second chances when students deﬁed these values.
54 In this atmosphere of all-male sociability, the more experienced students guided their younger counterparts not only in academic life, but also in the ways of the adult world. The 24 Masculinity, Autocracy, and the Russian University washrooms in particular were places where the younger students watched in awe as their older mentors shaved and washed. ’55 The more experienced students mentored the uninitiated on various other subjects relevant to student life. While visiting the dormitory of his tutor and friends, for example, the future Moscow University student Pirogov was ‘schooled’ by his elders on the subjects of sex and marriage.