By R. K. Boyd (auth.), F. W. Karasek, O. Hutzinger, S. Safe (eds.)
During the previous ten years numerous equipment regarding mass spectrom etry were built for the research of environmentally very important compounds. a lot has been complete in that interval to resolve the various vital difficulties within the box. progress of this technique and its accomplishments has reached the purpose the place somebody scientist can not have an in-depth wisdom of all of the parts concerned. we now have tried to supply this in-depth photograph to these scientists con cerned by means of having the $64000 themes taken care of via specialists within the material. so as to supply the entire proper fabric in a single quantity we start with the overall themes which offer the fundamental history fabric essential to comprehend the options mentioned within the in-depth themes. those basic chapters are stored short, containing merely the necessities wanted by way of the operating scientist to accommodate the sensible functions. References in those chapters are selected to allow a extra entire learn of every bankruptcy. the idea that for this e-book used to be built through the actions of 2 of the editors less than a NATO trip provide. those editors gratefully recognize this help which made the preliminary making plans of this e-book attainable. The editors wish to thank the person authors of every chap ter for his or her cooperation and generously giving in their time for this project.
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Additional info for Mass Spectrometry in Environmental Sciences
GC Injection Modes A majority of reported applications of GC/MS until recently have utilized flash vaporization injection techniques in which the sample is injected into a heated zone and vaporized before being swept onto the GC column by the carrier gas. Since injection is generally performed by a syringe with a metal needle, sample discrimination effects are possible, including decomposition of thermally labile species on the hot surface of the needle. Selective elution of components out of the needle has been reported.
With the higher flows of packed columns, it is not possible for most pumping systems to keep the ion source at low enough pressure without first splitting off most of the carrier gas (and therefore some of the sample) by the interface. Also, GC peak shape will not be appreciably degraded, ensuring a high concentration of sample in the ion source. The direct-connection interface is especially useful with flexible, lowbleed fused-silica columns. FIGURE 3. Open-split GC/MS interface. ) 28 R. E. CLEMENTarui F.
_,_ .. ,_,_ ... , _ ... ,1. , '513 1 ee 159 FIGURE 3C. ,_ .. _,_ .. _.. , _.. , 2Se 300 358 488 HELIUM CARRIER FIGURE 5. Comparison of mass spectra of tridecanoic acid, methyl ester obtained with CI source and H2 reactant gas (top), methane reactant gas (middle), and mass spectrum of same compound with an EI source (bottom). ) ions to form products which are detected in the mass spectrum of the sample. The most common type of reactions for methane reactant gas are hydride transfers. For compounds that do not produce an observable molecular ion under EI ionization, a quasi molecular ion is usually produced which is the molecular weight + 1 of the sample molecule.