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Machine Theory

Mining Methods by T. Onargan

By T. Onargan

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2. Background for failure mechanism of underground evaporite mines Geology is one of the most important parameters determining the overall deformational behavior of an underground opening. With careful investigation of the geological details, it is often possible to explain the unexpected deformational behavior of an excavation(Wang et all, 2000). Deformation of underground salt, trona and potash mines is generally time dependent, providing for gradual adjustment of strata to mining induced stresses.

The overall geologic map of the study area is demonstrated in Figure 1. The ore mass occurs within the altered basalt series that are a part of the Küre ophiolites and is overlain with black shale. The ore mass consists of coarse lenses broken with faults and thrusted. The ore, which is composed of pyrite and chalcopyrite, is in the form of massif lenses with high grades under the hanging wall black shale and in the form of stock work pyrite and chalcopyrite veins with low grades within the altered footwall formation.

Consequently, effective ground control may be considered to be a function of three main components:    Site ground characteristics, Mine planning and design; and Ground support and reinforcement Controlling the potential for hazardous ground movements and inundation of an underground mine to within acceptable limits is essential. Both hazards can result in serious harm or death of workers or persons that may inadvertently enter a mining area. The hazards are not always obvious. For example, the outcome of the hazard of a loose rock falling from a sidewall and striking someone can be fatal by either direct physical contact, or damaging the plant in which the worker is working.

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