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Extra info for Mountain Timberlines: Ecology, Patchiness, and Dynamics
D. Rafiqpoor, April 1997 forests disappeared mainly beeause of buming and grazing. 350 m (Laegaard, 1992). That would mean that wide areas ofthe present Paramo and Puna are aneient forest land (cf. Figure 4). South of 36° S as far as Tierra del Fuego, mainly Nothofagus pumilio (ltlengalt) forms the upper timberline. , 2000). Nothofagus antarctica ("nirre") is admixed to these stands. Both Nothofagus speeies shed their leaves in winter. On Sierra Nevada (38 0 37') Araucaria araucana is widely distributed at the upper timberline but does not extent far beyond 400 S (Wardie, 1998).
In New Guinea, for example, thirteen tree species and tall shrub species occur at the upper timberline. They belong to at least five genera, among them Podocarpus, Dacrycarpus, Quin- Physiognomie and Eeologieal Differentiation of Timberline 41 tinia, Rhododendron, Vaccinium, Rapanea, Olearia and others (Wardle, 1971, 1974; Hope, 1976; Löffler, 1979; Corlett, 1984). On the other band, tropieal timberline may also by formed by one speeies only, sueh as Podocarpus compactus and Libocedrus papuana in New Guinea, Erica arborea, Hagenia abyssinca and Hagenia leucoptychoides in East Africa or representatives ofthe Rosacea-genus Polylepis in the South Ameriean Andes.
Nothofagus antarctica ("nirre") is admixed to these stands. Both Nothofagus speeies shed their leaves in winter. On Sierra Nevada (38 0 37') Araucaria araucana is widely distributed at the upper timberline but does not extent far beyond 400 S (Wardie, 1998). Araucaria retaining upright growth and umbrella-shaped erowns projeets above "nirre" and "lenga" serub (Photo 19). In the highly maritime mountains south of 41 ° 30'S, whieh are deeply dissected by fjords and ehannels, thiekets of stunted and erooked Nothofagus antarctica extend above the evergreen Nothofagus dombeyi forest that grows at lower elevations (Oberdorfer, 1960).