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NanoOncology, An Issue of Clinics in Laboratory Medicine - by Kewal Jain MD FFPM

By Kewal Jain MD FFPM

This factor of Clinics in Laboratory drugs contains the subsequent subject matters: Detection of melanoma biomarkers through cerium oxide nanoparticles; Quantum dot-based assays for melanoma biomarkers; Monoclonal antibody conjugated fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles for in vivo analysis of melanoma; RNA quantification with gold nanoprobes for melanoma diagnostics; Nanostructured silica fabrics for imaging in melanoma; and Nanoparticle-based melanoma mobilephone sorting.

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NIR QDs have the potential to improve this important technique even further. Because the QDs in the study are composed of heavy metals, which can be toxic, they have not yet been approved for clinical use until safety has been established. Role of Nanoparticle-Based Imaging in Oncology Clinical Trials Currently, CT scans are used as surrogate end points in cancer clinical trials. The size of the tumor gives only limited information about the effectiveness of therapy. New imaging agents could speed the clinical trials process in 2 ways: (1) better imaging data could help oncologists select which therapies to use on a particular patient and (2) increasingly sensitive and specific imaging agents will be able to provide real-time information about whether a therapy is working.

The peptide has 3 states: soluble in water, bound to the surface of a membrane, and inserted across the membrane. At physiologic pH, the equilibrium is toward water, which explains its low affinity for cells in healthy tissue; at acidic pH, the equilibrium shifts toward membrane insertion and tissue accumulation. This peptide acts like a nanosyringe to deliver tags or therapy to cells. 5 and imaging by 27 28 Jain use of NIR fluorescence with wavelengths in the range of 700 to 900 nm. 39 The fluorescence signal is stable and is approximately 5 times higher in tumors than in healthy counterpart tissue.

The device would have a biosensor to identify cancer cells and a supply of anticancer substance that could be released on encountering cancer cells. A small computer could be incorporated to program and integrate the combination of diagnosis and therapy and provide the possibility to monitor the in vivo activities by an external device. Because there is no universal anticancer agent, the computer program could match the type of cancer to the most appropriate agent. Such a device could be implanted as a prophylactic measure in persons who do not have any obvious manifestations of cancer.

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