By George Capaccio
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Extra info for Nervous System (The Amazing Human Body)
C ONC U S S ION S Concussions occur when the brain and its nerves are forcefully moved. Sometimes the brain knocks against the inside of the skull. This sudden jolt can affect how the brain and nerves perform. In some cases, it can lead to temporary unconsciousness. For children, playing soccer is a leading cause of concussions. Professional athletes like boxers and football players sometimes experience multiple concussions during their careers. These injuries can produce serious medical problems.
This membrane contains millions of olfactory receptor cells. These smell receptors are not all the same, and different kinds can detect different odors. When odor molecules reach the nasal cavity, they dissolve in a layer of mucus, a slippery substance. Microscopic hairs attached to the smell receptors absorb the molecules and activate the receptor cells. When smell receptors are activated, electrical signals pulse along the olfactory nerve to the olfactory bulb. The olfactory bulb is under the front of your brain and just above the nasal cavity.
This is where nerve cell bodies are located. These neurons transmit messages between the spinal cord and the pairs of spinal nerves. The white matter is made of axons, the extensions that carry impulses away from the nerve cell body. Most of the white matter is in the cervical region where numerous axons travel from the brain to the different segments of the spinal cord and from these segments up to the brain. The fewest number of axons is in the sacral region. So there is much less white matter in this region of the spinal cord.