By Sergey S. Zhiltsov, Igor S. Zonn, Andrey G. Kostianoy
This ebook concisely describes the structure of the oil and gasoline pipelines within the Black-Caspian Seas sector and analyzes the established order and views of oil and fuel creation during this sector. The authors current a number of tasks, every one of which has made a considerable contribution to the advance of pipeline shipping and transit during this a part of the area, and speak about them intimately. the themes coated contain: the region’s geographic features; the region’s hydrocarbon power; Russian and european coverage on pipeline shipping; Kazakhstan’s pipeline coverage; chinese language pipeline initiatives; the Bulgarian fuel transmission process; environmental hazards within the creation and transportation of hydrocarbons; satellite tv for pc tracking; and subsea leak detection. This quantity deals a worthwhile source for politicians, experts within the oil and fuel enterprise, decision-makers, and environmentalists alike.
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Extra info for Oil and Gas Pipelines in the Black-Caspian Seas Region
Moreover, there was the sufficient number of large oil and gas fields in the territory of Russia. On the other hand, the northern part of the Caspian Sea was used as the spawning grounds of sturgeon fish to produce black caviar, for fishing valuable and other fish species. In 1975 it was declared a protected zone. At the same time the water area and the coastal zone of the Russian sector of the Caspian Sea were very poorly studied in geological and geophysical terms, including at the regional level.
Over the last 150 years, only five such cases have been recorded. Ice formation, as a rule, starts in mid-December and becomes quite common in February. Depending on severity of winters, the duration of the ice period may reach 130 days and ice thickness – up to 50 cm. In 1948–1985, the most severe winters were recorded in 1953/1954 (when it was possible to walk on ice across Novorossiysk Bay and Sevastopol Bay) and in 1984/1985. The warmest winters were recorded in 1965/1966, 1969/1970, and 1970/1971.
Azerbaijan Hydrocarbon Part of the Caspian Sea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydrocarbon Resources of Kazakhstan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Turkmen Hydrocarbon Reserves in the Caspian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S. Zhiltsov (*) Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, Miklukho-Maklaya str. Yu. Witte Moscow University, 12, Build. S. Yu. Witte Moscow University, 12, Build.