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Optical Chemical Sensors (NATO Science Series II: by F. Baldini (Editor), A. N. Chester (Editor), J. Homola

By F. Baldini (Editor), A. N. Chester (Editor), J. Homola (Editor)

This ebook covers optical chemical sensing by way of optical waveguides, from the basics to the latest purposes. The e-book features a old overview of the improvement of those sensors, from the earliest laboratory prototypes to the 1st advertisement instrumentations. The publication reprints a lecture by means of the Nobel Laureate Charles Townes at the delivery of maser and laser, which lucidly illustrates the improvement of latest technological know-how and new know-how.

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S. M. Weidgans biosensing in that the fundamental principles of affinity sensors were outlined for the first time and in that optical affinity sensing was recognized as a viable alternative to radioisotope techniques. The determination of glucose via concanavalin served as an example. Figure 3. First fiber optic chemical sensor (from ref. [17]; used for sensing oxygen). Alos shown is a cross-sedction of the fiber bundle used. 6: light source; 9: photodectectors; 16: chemically sensitive layer. 3.

Printed in the Netherlands. 18 2. S. M. Weidgans THE EARLY HISTORY (UP TO ~1980) Most probably, the first – but non-fiberoptic – sensors for continuous use where those for pH and for oxygen. It has been known for decades that cellulosic paper can be soaked with pH indicator dyes to give pH indicator strips which, however, leached and thus were of the "single-use" type. The respective research and development is not easily traced back since it is not well documented in the public literature. However, in the 1970s, indicator strips became available where they pH indicator dye was covalently linked to the cellulose matrix, usually via vinylsulfonyl groups.

Baldini et al. ), Optical Chemical Sensors, 1–15. © 2006 Springer. Printed in the Netherlands. H. Townes Energy concentration is even more important than power. With a laser, 10+15 or 10+16 watts can be concentrated in an area about the size of one wavelength, so we have maybe 10+23 watts per square centimeter. That’s a fantastic concentration of power, which produces new kinds of conditions and opens up some new science. But in addition to producing very high temperatures and fantastic power, the laser also has produced the coldest things we have ever known.

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