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Pediatric Anesthesia 1999 by K. Rupp, J. Holzki, T. Fischer, C. Keller

By K. Rupp, J. Holzki, T. Fischer, C. Keller

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Anesthesia Accessories A large assortment of anesthesia accessories, specially made to meet the needs of children, is available for all sorts of use. 1 Masks The masks used for anesthetic induction, the recovery phase and mask anesthesia in general have to fit the patient according to age (see Table 14). Requirements for pediatric masks include a minimum of dead space between the face and the mask, light weight and the ability to be sterilized repeatedly. Rendell-Baker masks fulfill these requirements exceptionally because the inside of the mask is almost completely filled by the child’s face.

Use a baby bonnet. g. with cotton). • Monitor body temperature closely. • Pre-warm and humidify breathing gas (see page 142). 4 The Balance between Water and Electrolytes Small children have a large amount of water in their bodies. The water content of a premature infant can account for up to 90 % of its weight. Of this, extracellular volume accounts for up to 60 %. e. 60 %. Of this, extracellular volume accounts for only 20 %. Intracellular water increases parallel to increasing muscle mass as the child grows older (see Figure 9).

Several factors favorable to Compound A generation include: • higher interaction with barium lime than with soda lime • increased bonding during low-flow and minimal flow anesthesia • high temperatures (= increased production of CO2) • reduced level of moisture in CO2 absorber Anesthetic Agents 47 Compound A is described as nephrotoxic in laboratory rats. There have, however, been no reports of human kidney damage caused by Compound A. The reason for differences in nephrotoxicity between humans and rats seems to lie in an increase of enzymatic activity of the ß-lyase during the metabolic processing of Compound A [Bito, 1998].

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