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Petrochemical Processes by Alain Chauvel

By Alain Chauvel

Contents: 7. Ethylene and propylene oxydes. eight. Acetic derivatives. nine. Alcohols. 10. Phenol, acetone and methyl ethyl ketone. eleven. Vinyl monomers. 12. Monomers for polyamide synthesis. thirteen. Monomers for polyester synthesis. 14. Monomers for polyurethane synthesis. Bibliography. Index.

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Many examples of calibration curves will be found in later pages of this text. A good calibration curve will be linear over a good range of analyte quantities. Ultimately curvature must be anticipated at the higher ranges and uncertainty and deteriorating precision at the low ones. A particular issue that must be considered for all calibration procedures is the possibility of matrix effects on the analyte signal. If such effects are present they may be allowed for in many cases by matrix matching of the standard to the sample.

The efficiency of mixing of powdered solids in a process stream is being investigated. Two samples of the mixture, each of about 1 kg, are taken from different parts of the same hopper. After grinding to a fine powder, analytical samples were obtained using the coning and quartering technique. 63 %. 071 %. Comment upon the efficiency of the mixing. 9. 41. 47 %. Assess these data and draw conclusions concerning the suitability of the method of analysis for routine use. 10. 85 ppm was used to compare the performance of two alternative methods of analysis.

This process of data rejection presents the analyst with an apparent paradox. If the limits for acceptance are set too narrowly, results which are rightly part of a statistical sample may be rejected and narrow limits may therefore only be applied with a low confidence of containing all statistically relevant determinations. Conversely wide limits may be used with a high confidence of including all relevant data, but at a risk of including some that have been subject to gross error. A practical compromise is to set limits at a confidence level of 90 %or 95 %.

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