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Additional resources for Polybius and Roman Imperialism
Fin. 79). 12 In addition, unlike 21 Part I. Attitude to Imperial Domination in the Hellenistic Period the old Stoics, who treated the state in a purely theoretical fashion, Panaetius wrote on this subject in a manner adapted for ordinary use by peoples and states (Cic. Leg. 14). 13 Moreover, in Off. 21-9, broadly based on the Peri tou kathêkontos of Panaetius, Cicero maintains that imperialist nations should treat their subjects with justice and moderation, while caring for their interests (cf.
35) observed that although his defence and refutation of justice were equally convincing, Carneades was not personally unjust. Thus neither Cicero nor Quintilian convicted the philosopher of genuinely espousing self-interest as the basis of society and international relations. On the contrary, both were more disposed to enlist him on the side of natural justice, and thus to believe that he would tend to derive the Roman empire from that source. 5). The advocates of justice and self-interest alike were realists who accepted the fact of Roman supremacy, but differed significantly in their approach to the problem.
Cicero (Sen. 23), moreover, implies that Diogenes, one of Carneades’ colleagues on the embassy sent to Rome in 155 BC, was already dead by the time of the dramatic date of the De Senectute, which is set in the late 150s (apparently the year 150 is meant, but Cicero’s chronology in Sen. 18-19 is confused). Dorandi, 1999: 41, suggests that Diogenes died c. 140 BC. At any rate, if both Carneades and Diogenes were dead by 129/8, it is likely that Critolaus as well, the third member of the embassy, had fulfilled his mortal term by the year 110 (on Critolaus see DPA 2, no.